Urea : Manfaat Pada Ruminansia

yanuartono - yanuartono, Alfarisa Nururrozi, Soedarmanto Indarjulianto, Hary Purnamaningsih, Slamet Rahardjo


The problems of ruminant feeding have received considerable attention in the tropics.  In the tropics, most ruminants are fed on low-quality roughages, agricultural crop-residues and industrial byproducts. Urea is widely available and has been used as a source of ammoniation to improve the feeding value of various grasses and crop residues. Furthermore, urea treatment as a supplement is relatively easy to apply, handling, inexpensive and valuable substitute for natural proteins in the ration. Although the use of urea has potential economic advantages for N sources, there are limitations and disadvantages to its use. Excess level of urea feeding may develop a problem of urea toxicity, due to poor mixing of feed or to errors in calculating the amount of urea to add to the ration. This paper aims to summarize some of the results of research on the benefits and possible negative effects of urea use as supplement to ruminants feed.


Key words : ruminants, roughages, urea, supplement, toxicity

Full Text:



Abdoun, K., Stumpff, F. and Martens, H. 2006. Ammonia and urea transport across the rumen epi-thelium: a review. Animal Health Research Reviews 7(1/2): 43-59. DOI: 10.1017/S1466252307001156

Abdullahi, S., Nyako, H.D., Malgwi, I.H., Yahya, M.M., Mohammed, I.D., Tijani, I., Aminu, I. M. and Shehu, I.T. 2016. Performance of Yankasa Rams Fed Urea Treated Sorghum Chaff as a Basal Diet Supplemented With Maize Offals in Semi - Arid Environment of Nigeria. International Journal of Life Sciences Research. 4 (1): 15-21. ISSN 2348-3148

Adugna, T., Roger, M. C., Arthur, G. L., Tilahun, S. and Tegene, N. 2000. Nutritional constraints and future prospective for Goat Production in East Africa. In: proceeding of the conference on opportunities and challenges of enhancing goat production in east Africa, No-vember 2000, Langston Universi-ty, Langston, USA and Debub University, Awassa, Ethiopia. 1-21.

Ahmed, M.H. and Babiker, S.A. 2015. Effect of Feeding Urea-Treated Sugar-Cane Bagasse on Properties and Quality of Fresh Meat of Su-dan Baggara Zebu Bulls. Interna-tional Journal of Animal Biology. 1 (3): 45-49.

Al-Busadah, K.A. 2008. Effects of Feed-ing Urea on Milk Composition in Lactating Goats. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences). 9 (2): 125-130.

Al-Shami, S.A. 2008. Effect of feeding urea-treated wheat straw on rumen environment in Awassi sheep. Sci-entific Journal of King Faisal Uni-versity (Basic and Applied Scienc-es). 9 (2): 131-136.

Altuntas, Z. 2008. Ruminants and Their Contribution to Our Life. http://www.fountainmagazine.com/Issue/detail/

Ammerman, C. B., Verde, G. J., Moore, J. E., Burns, W. C. and Chicco, C. F. 1972. Biuret, urea, and natural proteins as nitrogen supplements for low quality roughage for sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 35 (1):121-127. doi:10.2527/jas1972.351121x

Anonimousa. 1983. After paddy harvest. Straw Treatment, FAO. Regional Dairy Development and Training Team For Asia and Pasific. Second Edition.

Anonimousb. 2007. Experiences with urea-molasses multinutrient blocks in buffalo production and reproduc-tion in smallholder dairy farming, Punjab, India. Food and Agricul-ture Organization of the United Nations Rome. 59-70.

Antonelli, A. C., Mori, C. S., Soares, P. C., Kitamura, S. S. and Ortolani. E. L. 2004. Experimental ammonia poi-soning in cattle fed extruded or prilled urea: clinical findings. Bra-zilian Journal of Veterinary Re-search and Animal Science 41(1): 67-74. doi.org/10.1590/S1413-95962004000100010.

Antonelli, A.C., Torres, G.A.S., Soares, P.C., Mori, C.S., Sucupira, M.C.A. and Ortolani, E.L. 2007. Ammonia poisoning causes muscular but not liver damage in cattle. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., 59 (1): 8-13. doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352007000100002

Bach, A., Calsamiglia, S. and Stern, M. D. 2005. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 88 (e suppl 1): E9-21. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73133-7

Bartley, E.E., Davidovich, A.D., Barr, G.W., Griffel, G.W., Dayton, A.D., Deyoe, C.W. and Bechtle, R.M. 1976. Ammonia Toxicity in Cattle. Rumen and Blood Changes Associ-ated with Toxicity and Treatment Methods. J. Anim. Sci. 43 (4): 835-841. doi:10.2527/jas1976.434835x

Bata, M. 2008. Pengaruh Molases Pada Amoniasi Jerami Padi Menggunakan Urea Terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Ba-han Organik In Vitro. Agripet. 8 (2): 15-20. doi.org/10.17969/agripet.v8i2.610

Bergman, E. N. 1990. Energy contribu-tions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiology Review 70 (2): 567-590. PMID:2181501

Bheekhee, H., Hulman, B., Boodoo, R.K., Ramnauth, R., Heung, L., Yeun, R., Fakim, R. and Dobee, B. 1999. De-velopment and Field Evaluation of Animal Feed Supplementation Packages for Improving Meat and Milk Production in Ruminant Livestock Using Locally Available Feed Resources. Livestock Re-search Department, Agricultural Research and Extension Unit, Food and Agricultural Research Council, Quatre Bornes, Mauritius.

Bird, S. H., Rowe, J.B., Choct, M., Stachiw, S., Tler, P. and Thomp-son, R.D. 1999. In vitro fermenta-tion of grain and enzymatic diges-tion of cereal starch. Recent Ad-vances in Animal Nutrition in Aus-tralia. 12: 53-61.

Bödeker, D., Oppelland, G. and Holler, H. 1992. Involvement of carbonic an-hydrase in ammonia flux across rumen mucosa in vitro. Exp. Phys-iol. 77: 517-519. DOI: 10.1113/expphysiol.1992.sp003614

Bourg, B. M., Tedeschi, L.O., Wicker-sham, T.A. and Tricarico, J.M. 2015. Effects of a slow-release urea product on performance, car-cass characteristics, and nitrogen balance of steers fed steam-flaked corn. J. Anim. Sci. 90 (11): 3914–3923. doi:10.2527/jas2011-4832

Broderick, G. A., Craig, W. M. and. Rick-er, D. B. 1993. Urea Versus True Protein as Supplement for Lactat-ing Dairy Cows Fed Grain Plus Mixtures of Alfalfa and Corn Si-lages. Journal of dairy science 76 (8): 2266-2274. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77563-3

Broderick, G. A., Stevenson, M. J. and Patton. R. A. 2009. Effect of die-tary protein concentration and de-gradability on response to rumen-protected methionine in lactating dairy cows1. Journal of dairy sci-ence 92 (6): 2719-2728. DOI:10.3168/jds.2008-1277

Brown, W.F. 1990. Ammoniation or Cane Molasses Supplementation of Tropical Grass Hay. Journal of Production Agriculture. 3 (3): 377-381. doi:10.2134/jpa1990.0377

Brown, W.F. and Johnson, D.D. 1991. Ef-fects of energy and protein sup-plementation of ammoniated tropi-cal grass hay on the growth and carcass characteristics of cull cows. J Anim Sci. 69(1): 348-57. doi:10.2527/1991.691348x

Burgstaller, G. 1983. Practical Cattle Feeding. 3rd Edn., Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany: 19-24.

Caneque, S., Velasco, S. and Sancha, J. L. 1998. Nutritional value and use of ligno-cellulosic feed treated with urea in the ruminant diet. In: Ex-ploitation of Mediterranean rough-age and byproducts. Antongiovanni M. (Ed). Options Mediterraneenes 32-17: (CIHEAM).

Castillo, A. R., Kebreab, E., Beever, D. E. and France, J. 2000. A review of the efficiency of nitrogen utilisa-tion in lactating dairy cows and its relationship with environmental pollution. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 9 (1): 1-32. DOI:https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/68025/2000

Cecava, M. J., Merchen, N. R., Gay, L. C. and Berger, L. L. 1990. Composi-tion of ruminal bacteria harvested from steers as influenced by die-tary energy level, feeding frequen-cy, and isolation techniques. J. Dairy. Sci. 73 (9): 2480-2488. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78933-3

Chanjula, P. and Ngampongsai, W. 2008. Effect of supplemental nitrogen from urea on digestibility, rumen fermentation pattern, microbial populations and nitrogen balance in growing goats. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 30 (5): 571-578.

Chenost, M. and Kayouli, C. 1997. Rough-age Utilisation in Warm Climates. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 135, Rome.

Cherdthong, A., Wanapat, M. and Wachirapakorn, C. 2011. In-fluence of urea-calcium mixtures as rumen slow-release feed on in vitro fermentation using a gas pro-duction technique. Arch Anim Nutr. 65(3): 242-254. PMID:21776840

Currier, T. A., Bohnert, D. W., Falck, S. J. and Bartle, S. J. 2004. Daily and al-ternate day supplementation of urea or biuret to ruminants con-suming low-quality forage: I. Ef-fects on cow performance and the efficiency of nitrogen use in weth-ers1,2. J. Anim. Sci. 82 (5): 1508–1517. doi:10.2527/2004.8251508x

Dass, M.M. and Kundu, S.S. 1994. Effects of calcium hydroxide, urea and calcium hypochloride treatment on composition and digestibility of wheat straw. Ind. J. Dairy Sci. 47 (1): 59-61.

Davidovich, A., Bartley, E. E., Chapman, T. E., Bechtle, R. M., Dayton, A. D. and Frey, R. A. 1977. Ammonia Toxicity in Cattle. II. Changes in Carotid and Jugular Blood Compo-nents Associated with Toxicity. Journal of Animal Science 44 (4): 702-709 doi:10.2527/jas1977.444702x

Edjtehadi, M., Szabuniewicz, M. and Emmanuel, B. 1978. Acute Urea Toxicity In Sheep. Can J Comp Med. 42(1): 63-68. PMCID: PMC1277793.

EFSA, 2012. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Urea for ru-minants1 EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP). EFSA Journal 10(3): 1-12. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2624.

Fadel Elseed, A. M. A., Sekine, J., Hishi-numa, M. and Hamana, K. 2003. Effects of ammonia, urea plus cal-cium hydroxide and animal urine treatments on chemical composi-tion and in sacco degradability of rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(3): 368-373. doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.368

Fisher, L.J. 1978. A Comparison Of Sup-plemental Forms Of Phosphorus. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 58 (2): 313-317. doi.org/10.4141/cjas78-041

Fonnesbeck, P. V., Kearl, L. C. and Harris, L. E. 1975. Feed Grade Biuret as a Protein Replacement for Rumi-nants. A Review. Journal of Ani-mal Science 40 (6): 1150- 1184. doi:10.2527/jas1975.4061150x.

Forsberg, N.E., Al-Maqbaly, R., Al-Halhali, A., Ritchie, A. and Srikandakumar, A. 2002. Assessment of Molasses–Urea Blocks for Goat and Sheep Production in the Sultanate of Oman.: Intake and Growth Studies. Tropical Animal Health and Pro-duction 34 (3): 231-239. doi:10.1023/A:1015282625468

Golombeski, G. L., Kalscheur, K. F., Hip-pen, A. R. and Schingoethe. D. J. 2006. SlowRelease Urea and High-ly Fermentable Sugars in Diets Fed to Lactating Dairy Cows. Journal of dairy science 89 (11): 4395-4403. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72486-9

Gonçalves, A.P., Moysés do Nascimento, C.F., Ferreira, F.A., Rodrigo da Costa, G., Marcelo de Queiroz, M., Marino, C.T., de Abreu Demarchi, J.J.A. and Rodrigues, P.H.M. 2015. Slow-release Urea in Sup-plement Fed to Beef Steers. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 58 (1): 22-30. doi.org/10.1590/S1516-8913201502162.

Grishwold, K. E., Hover, W. H., Miller, T. K. and Thayne, W. V. 1996. Effect of form of nitrogen on growth of ruminal microbes in continuous culture. J. Anim. Sci. 74 (2): 483-491. doi:10.2527/1996.742483x

Guliński, P., Salamończyk, E. and Młynek, K. 2016. Improving nitro-gen use efficiency of dairy cows in relation to urea in milk – a review. Animal Science Papers and Re-ports 34 (1): 5-24.

Gunun, P., Wanapat, M. and Anantasook, N. 2013. Effects of Physical Form and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Steers. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 26 (12): 1689-1697. doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13190

Hadjipanayiotou, M., Verhaeghe, L., Allen, M., Kronfoleh, A.R., Al-Wadi, M., Amin, M., Naigm, T., El-Said, H. and Al-Haress, A.K. 1993. Urea blocks. I. Methodology of block making and different formulae tested in Syria. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 5(3): 6-15.

Haliburton, J.C. and Morgan, S.E. 1989. Nonprotein nitrogeninduced am-monia toxicosis and ammoniated feed toxicity syndrome. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 5 (2): 237-49. PMID:2667705

Hastuti, D., Shofia, N.A. and Iskandar, B.M. 2011. Pengaruh Perlakuan Teknologi Amofer (Amoniasi Fermentasi) Pada Limbah Tongkol Jagung Sebagai Alternatif Pakan Berkualitas Ternak Ruminansia. Mediagro. 7 (1): 55-65.

Hatfield, E. E., Garrigus, U. S., Forbes, R. M., Neumann, A. L., And Gaither, W. 1959. Biuret-A Source Of NPN For Ruminants. Journal of Animal Science. 18 (4): 1208-1219. doi:10.2527/jas1959.1841208x

Hatungimana, E. and Ndolisha, P. 2015. Effect of Urea Molasse Block Sup-plementation on Growth Perfor-mance of Sheep. International Journal of Novel Research in Life Sciences. 2 (3) :38-43. ISSN 2394-966X.

Helmer, L.G. and and Bartley, E.E. 1971. Progress in the Utilization of Urea as a Protein Replacer for Rumi-nants. A Review. J. Dairy Sci., 54 (1): 25-51. doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022 0302(71)85776-4.

Highstreet, A., Robinson, P. H., Robison, J. and Garrett. J. G. 2010. Response of Holstein cows to replacing urea with with a slowly rumen released urea in a diet high in soluble crude protein. Livestock Science. 129 (1-3) : 179-185. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.01.022

Hoover, W. H. and Stokes, S. R. 1991. Balancing carbohydrates and pro-teins for optimum rumen microbial yield. J. Dairy Sci. 74 (10): 3630-3645. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78553-6

Horner, R. F. 1982. Suspected Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer Poisoning in Cat-tle. Vet. Rec. 110 (20): 472-474. doi.org/10.1136/vr.110.20.472

Huber, J. T. and Kung, L. Jr. 1981. Protein and nonprotein nitrogen utilization in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 64 (6): 1170-1195. doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(81)82695-1

Hunter, R.A. and Vercoe, J.E. 1984. The role of urea in the nutrition of ru-minants fed low quality roughage diets. Agriculture 13 (3): 154-159. DOI: 10.1177/003072708401300307

Hunter, R.A. 2012. High-molasses diets for intensive feeding of cattle. An-imal Production Science 52(9): 787-794 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN11178

Huntington, G.B. 1997. Starch utilization by ruminants: from basics to the bunk. J Anim Sci.,75 (3): 852-67. doi:10.2527/1997.753852x

Huntington, G.B. and Archibeque, S.L. 1999. Practical aspects of urea and ammonia metabolism in rumi-nants. Proc. of the American Soc. of Anim. Sci. 1-11.

Huntington, G. B., Harmon, D. L., Kris-tensen, N. B., Hanson, K. C. and Spears, J. W. 2006. Effects of a slow-release urea source on ab-sorption of ammonia and endoge-nous production of urea by cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 130 (3-4): 225–241. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.01.012

Hussein, H.S., Stern, M.D. and Jordan, R.M. 1991. Influence of dietary protein and carbohydrate source on nitrogen metabolism and carbohy-drate fermentation by rumen mi-crobes in continuous culture. Jour-nal of Animal Science 69 (5): 2123-2133. DOI: 10.2527/1991.6952123x

Isa, O.A. and Dipo, O. 2014. Effect of Var-ious Protein Sources in Urea-Molasses Feed Blocks on Chemical Constituents and In Vitro Fermen-tation for Ruminants. Nigerian J. Anim.Sci. 16(2): 272-279.

Islam, S., Haque, M. and Hossain, S. 2016. Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) Test Protocol for Raw Materials of Feed. Ijppr.Human. 6 (3): 129-140.

Jabbar, M.A., Muzafar, H., Khattak, F.M., Pasha, T.N. and Khalique, A. 2009. Simplification of urea treatment method of wheat straw for its bet-ter adoption by the farmers. South African Journal of Animal Science. 39 (suppl 1): 58-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v39i1.61206

Jayawickrama, D.R., Weerasinghe, P.B., Jayasena, D.D. and Mudannayake, D.C. 2013. Effects of supplementa-tion of urea-molasses multinutrient block (UMMB) on the perfor-mance of dairy cows fed good quality forage based diets with rice straw as a night feeding. CNU Journal of Agricultural Science 40(2): 123-129. DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2013.40.2.123.

Jóźwik, A., Krzyżewski, J., Strzałkowska, N., Poławska, E., Bagnicka, E., Wierzbicka, A., Niemczuk, K., Lipińska, P. and Horbańczuk, J.O. 2012. Relations between the oxida-tive status, mastitis, milk quality and disorders of reproductive func-tions in dairy cows - a review. An-imal Science Papers and Reports 30 (4): 297-307.

Karsli, M.A. and Russell, J.R. 2002. Ef-fects of Source and Concentrations of Nitrogen and Carbohydrate on Ruminal Microbial Protein Synthe-sis. Turk J Vet Anim Sci., 26: 201-207.

Karunanandaa, K., Varga, G.A., Akin, D.E., Rigsby, L.L. and Royse, D.J. 1995. Botanical fractions of rice straw colonized by white-rot fungi: Changes in chemical composition and structure. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 55 (3-4): 179-199. doi:10.1016/0377-8401(95)00805-W

Kerketta, N., Victor, V.M., Chandraker, A.K. and Jogdand, S.V. 2017. Ef-fect of Urea Molasses Mineral Block as feed Supplement on Body Weight Gain and haemato-biochemical Parameters of Work-ing Bullocks. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Re-search. 5 (6): 917-920. ISSN (Online) 2319-1473

Kertz, A. F. 2010. Review: Urea Feeding to Dairy Cattle: A Historical Per-spective and Review. The Profes-sional Animal Scientist 26 (3): 257-272. doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30593-3.

Khampa, S., Wanapat, M., Wachirapa-korn, C., Nontaso, N. and Wattiaux. M. 2006. Effects of Urea Level and Sodium DL-malate in Concentrate Containing High Cas-sava Chip on Ruminal Fermenta-tion Efficiency, Microbial Protein Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows Raised under Tropical Condition. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19 (6): 837-844. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.837

Khattab, I.M., Salem, A.Z.M., Abdel-Wahed, A.M. and Kewan, K.Z. 2013. Effects of urea supplementa-tion on nutrient digestibility, nitro-gen utilisation and rumen fermen-tation in sheep fed diets containing dates. Livestock Science 155: 223–229. doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.05.024

King, W.A., O’Dell, G.D. and Roderick, D.B. 1957. Utilization of Black-strap Molasses, Urea in Molasses, and Ammoniated Molasses by Dairy Heifers. J. Dairy Sci., 40 (7): 810-817. doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(57)94557-5.

Kitamura, S.S., Antonelli, A.C., Maruta, C.A., Soares, P. C, Sucupira, M.C., Mori, C.S., Mirandola, R.M., and Ortolani, E.L. 2003. A model for ammonia poisoning in cattle. Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 45 (5): 274-277. PMID:14513900

Koenig, K.M., Newbold, C.J., McIntosh, F.M. and Rode, L.M. 2000. Effects of protozoa on bacterial nitrogen recycling in the rumen. J Anim Sci. 78 (9): 2431-2445. doi:10.2527/2000.7892431x

Krop, J. R., Jonhson, R. R., Males, J. R. and Owens, F. N. 1977. Microbial protein synthesis with low quality roughage rations: Level and source of nitrogen. J. Anim. Sci. 45 (4): 844-854. doi:10.2527/jas1977.454844x

Kurzer, F. and Sanderson, P.M. 1956. Urea in the history of organic chemistry: Isolation from natural sources. J. Chem. Educ., 33 (9): 452-459. DOI: 10.1021/ed033p452

Lam, T. B. T., Kadoya, K. and Iiyama, K. 2001. Bonding of hydroxycinnamic acids to lignin: ferulic and p-coumaric acids are predominantly linked at the benzyl position of lignin, not the b-position, in grass cell walls. Phytochem. 57 (6): 987-992. doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00052-8

Lapierre, H. and Lobley, G. E. 2001. Ni-trogen recycling in the ruminant: a review. Journal of Dairy Science 84 (supplement): E223-E236.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70222-6

Lawler-Neville, T. L., Shellito, S. M., Maddock, T. D., Bauer, M. L., Lardy, G. P., Gilbery, T. C. and Caton, J. S. 2014. Effects of con-centrated separator by-product (desugared molasses) on intake, site of digestion, microbial effi-ciency, and nitrogen balance in ruminants fed forage-based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 84 (8): 2232-2242 doi:10.2527/jas.2005-765

Lawrence, M.P. and Mugerwa, J.S. 1974. Utilization of Urea and Molasses for Dairy Cattle Feeding. I. Re-sponse of Lactating Dairy Cows to Different Dietary Nitrogen and En-ergy Combinations. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 39 (3): 215-227

Lee, C., Stahlberg, E.A. and Fitzgerald, G. 1995. Chemical Structure of Urea in Water. J. Phys. Chem., 99 (50): 17737-17741. DOI: 10.1021/j100050a011

Leng, R. A. and Preston, T. R. 1984. Nutri-tional strategies for the utilization of agro-industrial byproducts by ruminants and extension of the principles and technologies to the small farmer in Asia. In: Proceed-ings 5th World Conference on An-imal Production. Japanese Society of Zoo Technical Science: Tokyo. 310-318.

Manurung, T. and Zulbardi, M. 1996. Pen-ingkatan Mutu Jerami Padi Dengan Perlakuan Urea Dan Tetes. Jurnal llmu Ternak dan Veteriner. 2 (1): 33-37. doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v2i1.41

Mayes, R.W. and Dove, H. 2000. Meas-urement of dietary nutrient intake in free-ranging mammalian herbi-vores. Nutrition Research Review. 13 (1): 107-138. DOI:10.1079/095442200108729025

McCollum, F. T. and Horn, G. W. 1990. Protein supplementation of grazing livestock: A review. Prof. Anim. Sci. 60:570-577.

McDonald, I., Edwards, R. A., and Green-halg, J. F. D. 2002. Animal nutri-tion. 6th ed. Pearson Prentiee Hall. Edingburgh gate, UK.

McPherson, W. and H. Witt. 1968. Feed and livestock transport cost rela-tionships. Transportation Journal 8: 25-36. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20712067

Meena, B., Kaur, H. and Suman, M. 2013. Effect of Replacing Dicalcium Phosphate with Diammonium Phosphate as a Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization in Crossbred Calves. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 30 (1): 17-19. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1913.4964.

Migwi, P. K., Godwin, I., Nolan, J. V. and Kahn L. P. 2011. The Effect of En-ergy Supplementation on Intake and Utilisation Efficiency of Urea-treated Low-quality Roughage in Sheep I. Rumen Digestion and Feed Intake. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 24 (5): 623-635. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2011.10282

Mishra, A. S., Misra, A. K., Tripathi, M. K., Santra, A., Prasad, R. and Jakhmola, R. C. 2004. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide plus Hydrogen Peroxide Treated Mustard (Brassi-ca campestris) Straw Based Diets on Rumen Degradation Kinetics (In sacco), Fermentation Pattern and Nutrient Utilization in Sheep. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 17 (3): 355-365. doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.355

Mohammed, I.D., Baulube, M. and Adeyinka, I.A. 2007. Multi-nutrient Blocks I: Formulation and Production under a Semi-arid En-vironment of North East Nige-ria. Journal of Biological Sciences, 7: 389-392. DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2007.389.392

Moraes, L.E., Burgos, S.A., DePeters, E.J., Zhang, R. and Fadel, J.G. 2017. Short communication: Urea hy-drolysis in dairy cattle manure un-der different temperature, urea, and pH conditions. J. Dairy Sci., 100 (3): 2388-2394. doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11927

Muralidharan, J., Thiruvenkadan, A.K. and Saravanakumar, V.R. 2016. Effect of concentrate and urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) supple-mentation on the growth and feed consumption of Mecheri lambs un-der intensive rearing. Indian J. Anim. Res., 50 (3): 382-386. DOI:10.18805/ijar.9421.

Nair, P. V., Verma, A. K., Dass, R. S. and Mehra U. R. 2004. Growth and Nu-trient Utilization in Buffalo Calves Fed Ammoniated Wheat Straw Supplemented with Sodium Sul-phate. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 17 (3): 325-329. doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.325

Narasimhalu, P.R., Belzile, R.J., Brisson, G.J. and Holtman, W.B. 1980. Ad-aptation of Lactating Cows to Ra-tions Containing Urea. J Dairy Sci 63 (8): 1264-1272. doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83077-3

Trach, N.X., Dan, C. X., Ly, L. V. and Sundstol, F. 1998. Effect of urea concentration, moisture content and duration of treatment on chem-ical composition of alkali treated rice straw. Livest. Res. Rural Devel. 10 (1): 1-2.

Nocek, J. E. and Russel, J. B. 1988. Pro-tein and Energy as an Integrated System. Relationship of Ruminal Protein and Carbohydrate Availa-bility to Microbial Synthesis and Milk Production. Journal of Dairy Science. 71(8): 2070-2107. doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79782-9

Nyako, H.D., Anthony, S., Malgwi, I. H., Yahya, M. M., Aminu, I. M., Tija-ni, I., Tukur, I. S., Ajiji, I. and Mo-hammed, I. D. 2015. Performance of Yankasa Rams Fed Maize Stov-er as Basal Diet Supplemented with Different Compositions of Molasses-Urea Blocks. The Inter-national Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 3 (9): 197-202 (ISSN 2321 – 919X)

Obitsu, T., Taniguchi, K. and Yamatani, Y. 1992. Effects of ruminal infu-sion rate of urea on digestion and nitrogen utilization in ruminants. Ani. Sci. and Tech. 63 (3): 277-285. ISSN 0021-5309

Ortolani, E. I., Mori, C. S. and Filho, J. A. R. 2000. Ammonia toxicity from urea in a Brazilian dairy goat flock. Veter. and Human Toxico. 42(2): 87-89. PMID:10750172

Paengkoum, S., Wanapat, M., Wachirapa-korn, C. and Nontaso, N. 2010. The Effect of Roughage and Urea Solu-tion Infusion Levels on Ruminal NH3-N Concentration and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle and Swamp Buffaloes. Silpakorn U Science & Tech J. 4(1): 47-55. DOI: 10.14456/sustj.2010.5

Panday, D. 2011. Urea as a Non-Protein Nitrogen Sources for Ruminants. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301618548

Parkes, H., Shilton, C. and Eccles, J. 2011. Urea poisoning in cattle. Agnote, K46 Northern Territory Govern-ment. ISSN 0157-8243. www.nt.gov.au/d

Perdok, H.B. and Leng, R.A. 1987. Hyper-excitability in cattle fed ammoni-ated roughage. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 17 (2): 121-143. DOI: 10.1016/0377-8401(87)90009-5

Pinos-Rodríguez, J.M., Peña, L.Y., Gonzá-lez-Muñoz, S.S., Bárcena, R. and Salem, A. 2010. Effects of a slow-release coated urea product on growth performance and ruminal fermentation in beef steers. Italian J. Anim. Sci 9 e4: 16-19. doi.org/10.4081/10.4081/ijas.2010.e4

Pisulewski, P. M., Okorie, A. U., Buttery, P. J., Haresign, W. and Lewis, D. 1981. Ammonia concentration and protein synthesis in the rumen. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 32 (8): 759-766. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740320803

Polan, C. E., Miller, C. N. and McGilliard, M. L. 1976. Variable Dietary Pro-tein and Urea for Intake and Pro-duction in Holstein Cows. Journal of dairy science 59 (11): 1910-1914. .doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(76)84460-8

Preston, T.R. 1986. Better Utilization of Crop Residues and By-products in Animal Feeding: Research Guide-lines. 2. A Practical Manual for Research Workers. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): 20-35.

Preston, T. R. and Leng, R. A. 1987. Matching ruminant production sys-tems with available resources in the tropics and sub-tropics. Penambul Books, Armidale.

Preston, T.R., Hinojosa, C., Martinez, L. and Mexico, C. 1976. Ensiling of sugar cane with ammonia molas-sesand mineral acids. Trop. Anim. Prod. 1:143-150.

Puga, D.C., Galina, H.M., Pérez-Gil, R.F., Sanginés, G.L., Aguilera, B.A. and Haenlein, G.F., 2001. Effect of a controlled-release urea supplement on rumen fermentation in sheep fed a diet of sugar cane tops (Sac-charum officinarum), corn stubble (Zea mays) and King grass (Pen-nisetum purpureum). Small Rumin. Res., 39 (3): 269-276. DOI: 10.1016/S0921-4488(00)00196-6

Radostits, O.M., Blood, D.C., and Gay, C.C. 2002. Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pig, goats and horses. Lon-don: Baillière Tindall, 1994. 1765.

Reddy, G.V.N. and Reddy, M.R. 1986. Ef-fect of ammonia treatment and processing of cotton straw as the sole source of roughage in com-plete feeds on rumen characterstics with Murrah buffaloes. Animal Feeds and Technology 14: 95-101. ISSN : 0377-8401

Rihani, N., Garrett, W.N. and Zinn, R.A. 1993. Effect of source of supple-mental nitrogen on the utilization of citrus pulp-based diets by sheep. J Anim Sci. 71(9): 2310-2321. doi:10.2527/1993.7192310x

Rodríguez, R., Sosa, A. and Rodríguez, Y. 2007. Microbial protein synthesis in rumen and its importance to ru-minants. Cuban J. Agric. Sci. 41(4): 287-294.

Rush, I.G., Johnson, R. R. and Totusek, R. 1976. Evaluation Of Beef Cattle Range Supplements Containing Urea And Biuret. J Anim Sci., 42 (5): 1297-1308. doi:10.2527/jas1976.4251297x

Saadullah, M., Haque, M. and Dolberg, F. 1981. Treatment Of Rice Straw With Lime. Trop Anim Prod 6 (2): 116-120.

Saha, D., Gupta, R.S., Baghel, R.P. S. and Khare, A. 2012. Efficiency of utili-zation of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus). Veterinary Research Forum. 3 (3): 213-216. PMCID: PMC4299986

Sallam, S.M.A. 2005. Nutritive Value As-sessment of the Alternative Feed Resources by Gas Production and Rumen Fermentation In vitro. Res. J. Agric. & Biol. Sci., 1(2): 200-209.

Sansoucy, R. and Hassoun, P. 2007. The block Story, FAO Animal Produc-tion and Health, Food and Agricul-ture Organization of the United Nations working paper No. 164. Rome. ISSN 0254-6019.

Sarnklong, C., Cone, J. W., Pellikaan, W. and Hendriks, W. H. 2010. Utilization of Rice Straw and Different Treatments to Improve Its Feed Value for Ruminants: A Review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23 (5): 680-692. doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.80619

Satter, L. D. and Slyter, L. L. 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition 32: 199-208. DOI: 10.1079/BJN19740073

Schlegel, E.R., Montgomery, S.P., Waggoner, J.W., Vahl, C.I., Titgemeyer, E.C., Hollenbeck, W.R. and Blasi, D.A. 2016. Evalua-tion of ammoniated wheat straw during a receiving and growing pe-riod for beef cattle. The Profes-sional Animal Scientist 32 (3): 295–301. 10.15232/pas.2015-01448

Seiden, R. and Pfander, W.H. 2013. The Handbook of Feedstuffs: Production Formulation Medication. Springer Science+Business Media, New York. Published by Springer Publishing Company, Inc

Sengar, S.S., Tomar, S.K., and Katiyar R.C. 1999. Performance of buffalo heifers on complete feed mashes with different sources of nitrogen. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal 23: 39-47.

Seseray, D.Y., Santoso, B. dan Lekitoo, M.N. 2013. Produksi Rumput Gajah (Pennisetum purpureum) yang Diberi Pupuk N, P dan K dengan Dosis 0, 50 dan 100% pada Devoliasi Hari ke-45. Sains Peter-nakan 11 (1): 49-55. ISSN 1693-8828

Shaikat, A.H., Hassan, M.M., Azizul Is-lam, S. K. M., Khan, S.A., Hoque, A., Islam, N. and Hossain, M.B. 2012. Non-protein nitrogen com-pound poisoning in cattle. Univ. j. zool. Rajshahi Univ. 31: 65-68. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/ujzru.v31i0.15403

Shain, D.H., Stock, R.R., Klopfenstein, T.J. and Herold, D.W. 1998. Effect of degradable intake protein level on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism. J. Anim. Sci. 76 (1): 242-248. doi:10.2527/1998.761242x

Sharma, S.K., Joshi, M., Kumar, K. and Parmjeet. 2017. Acute Urea Poi-soning in Buffaloes: Case Study. Research & Reviews: Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 3 (1): 1-5.

Singhal, K.K. and Mudgal, V.D. 1980. Bi-uret, A NPN Source for Rumi-nants-A Review. J. Nuclear Agric. Biol., 9 (2): 64-70.

Singh, R., Kumar, S., and Brar, B. S. 2010. Evaluation of urea molasses multi-nutrient blocks enriched with area specific mineral mixture in buffa-loes. Indian Journal of Animal Sci-ences 80 (6): 561-564. ISSN : 0367-8318. Record Number : 20103205115

Soepranianondo, K., Nazar, D.S. dan Handiyatno, D. 2007. Potensi Je-rami Padi yang Diamoniasi dan Difermentasi Menggunakan Bak-teri Selulolitik terhadap Konsumsi Bahan Kering, Kenaikan Berat Ba-dan dan Konversi Pakan Domba. Media Kedokteran Hewan. 23 (3): 202-205.

Sriskandarajah, N. and Kellaway R. C. 1982. Utilization of low quality roughages: effects of alkali treat-ment of wheat straw on intake by and growth rate of cattle, with and without a supplement of cotton-seed meal. The Journal of Agricul-tural Science. 99 (2): 241-248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600029993

Stanton, T.L. and Whittier, J. 1998. Urea and NPN for Cattle and Sheep Re-viewed 3/06. https://extension.colostate.edu/docs/pubs/livestk/01608.

Suksombat, W. 2004. Comparison of dif-ferent alkali treatment on bagasse and rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17 (10): 1430-1433. doi: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1430

Sundstøl, F. and Coxworth, E. M. 1984. Ammonia treatment. In: Sundstol, F., Owen, E.(Eds). Straw and other fibrous by-products as feed. Else-vier, Amesterdam. 196-247.

Tadele, Y. and Amha, N. 2015. Use of Dif-ferent Non-Protein Nitrogen Sources in Ruminant Nutrition: A review. Advances in Life Science and Technology. 29 :100-105. ISSN 2225-062X

Taylor-Edwards, C. C., Hibbard, G., Kitts, S. E., McLeod, K. R., Axe, D. E., Vanzant, E. S., Kristensen, N. B. and Harmon, D. L. 2014. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal di-gesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (1): 200-208. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-0912

Tekeba, E., Wurzinger, M. and Zollitsch, W. 2012. Effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a dietary supplement for dairy cows in two milk production systems in north-western Ethiopia. Livestock Re-search for Rural Development 24 (8): 1-4

Thompson, L.J. 2014. Overview of non-protein nitrogen poisoning. The Mercks Veterinary Manual. Merck & Co., Inc. White house station, N.J., U.S.A.

Togtokhbayar, N. and Gendaram, K. 2004. Methods of feed preparation using locally available feed resources, editor: Gendaram Khuderiin. Mon-golian State University of Agricul-ture, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

VandeHaar, M. J. and St-Pierre. N. 2006. Major Advances in Nutrition: Rel-evance to the Sustainability of the Dairy Industry. Journal of dairy science 89 (4): 1280-1291.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72196-8

Van Soest, P.J. 2006. Rice straw the role of silica and treatment to improve quality. J. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 130 (3-4): 137-171. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.01.023

Varner, J.E. and Lin, L.S. 1989. Plant cell wall architecture. Cell 56 (2): 231–239.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(89)90896-9

Walker, H.G. and Kohler, G.O. 1981. Treated and untreated cellulosic wastes as animal feeds: Recent work in the United States of America. Agriculture and Environment 6 (2-3): 229-243. doi.org/10.1016/0304-1131(81)90013-8

Wanapat, M., Kang, S., Hankla, N. and Phesatcha, K. 2013. Effect of rice straw treatment on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk pro-duction in lactating dairy cows. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 8(17): 1677-1687. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2013.6732

Wanapat , M., Gunun, P., Anantasook, N. and Kang, S. 2014. Changes of rumen pH, fermentation and microbial population as influ-enced by different ratios of roughage (rice straw) to concen-trate in dairy steers. The Journal of Agricultural Science152 (4) :675-685 doi.org/10.1017/S0021859613000658

Webb, D.W., Bartley, E.E. and Meyer, M.R. 1972. A comparison of nitro-gen metabolism and ammonia tox-icity from ammonium acetate and urea in cattle. Journal of Animal Science 35 (6): 1263-1270. doi:10.2527/jas1972.3561263x

Winter, K.A. and Pigden, W.J. 1971. Some Effects Of Ruminal Infusions Of Urea And Urea. Sucrose On Utili-zation Of Oat Straw By Cows. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 51 (3): 777-781. doi.org/10.4141/cjas71-105

Woyengo, T.A., Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G. and Mbugua, P.N. 2004. Ef-fect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of maize stover by Red Maasai sheep. SA Jnl Animal Sci, 34 (1): 23-30. doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v34i1.3806

Wright, T. C., Moscardini, S., Luimes, P. H., Susmel, P. and McBride, B. W. 1998. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein and feed in-take on nitrogen balance and milk protein production in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81(3): 784-793. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75635-8

Wu, Y.M., Hu, W.L. and Liu, J.X. 2005. Effects of supplementary urea-minerals lick block on the kinetics of fibre digestion, nutrient digesti-bility and nitrogen utilization of low quality roughages. J Zhejiang Univ SCI. 6B (8): 793-797. doi:10.1631/jzus.2005.B0793

Wuliji, T. and McManus, W.R. 1988. Col-onization of alkali-treated fibrous roughages by anaerobic rumen fungi. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1(2): 65-71. doi: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1988.65

Xin, H.S., Schaefer, D.M., Liu, Q.P., Axe D.E. and Meng, Q.X. 2010. Effects of polyurethane coated urea sup-plement on in vitro ruminal fer-mentation, ammonia release dy-namics and lactating performance of Holstein dairy cows fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 23 (4): 491-500. doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.90153

Yanti, S.E.F., Masrul, M.E. dan Hannum, H. 2014. Pengaruh Berbagai Dosis Dan Cara Aplikasi Pupuk Urea Terhadap Produksi Tanaman Sawi (Brassica Juncea L.) Pada Tanah Inceptisol Marelan. Jurnal Onaline Agroekoteknologi .2 (2) : 770-780.

Yanuartono, Indarjulianto, S., Purnaman-ingsih, H. and Raharjo, S. 2015. Evaluasi Klinis dan Laboratoris pada Kejadian Sapi Ambruk Tahun II. Laporan Penelitian. Penelitian Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi (PUPT), Kementrian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi.

Yin, F.G., Zhang, Z.Z., Huang, J. and Yin, Y.L. 2010. Digestion rate of die-tary starch affects systemic circu-lation of amino acids in weaned pigs. Brit J Nutr, 103 (10): 1404-1411. doi:10.1017/S0007114509993321

Yitbarek, M.B. and Tamir, B. 2014. Silage Additives: Review. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 4 (5): 258-274. doi.org/10.4236/ojapps.2014.45026

Yulistiani, D., Puastuti, W., Wina E. dan Supriati. 2012. Pengaruh berbagai pengolahan terhadap nilai nutrisi tongkol jagung: Komposisi kimia dan kecernaan in vitro. JITV 17(1): 59-66.

Zhang, S., Cheng, L., Guoa, X., Mac, C., Guod, A. and Moonsane, Y. 2016. Short Communication :Effects of urea supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa population in vitro. Jour-nal of Applied Animal Research, 44 (1): 1-4. doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2014.978779

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jiip.2018.028.01.02


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.