Review : Kejadian mastitis dan kaitannya dengan vitamin dan Trace Mineral Cu, Zn, Se

yanuartono - yanuartono, Alfarisa Nururrozi, Soedarmanto Indarjulianto, Hary Purnamaningsih, Nurman Haribowo


Mastitis means inflammation of the udder and is a common disease among dairy cows worldwide. It is subdivided into clinical mastitis and subclinical mastitis, both influence milk quality and quantity, and mastitis is therefore of major economic concern for the farmer. The incidence rate of mastitis varies between herds and depends on the exposure to pathogens, environmental and management factors and the immune status of the cow. Mastitis is associated with release of free radicals, increased total oxidant capacity and decreased total antioxidants capacity in milk. Vitamin C, E, , α tocopherol, A, β-karoten and trace mineral (Cu, Zn, and Se) feeding, as an antioxidant, in dairy cows have shown appreciable protective effects by reducing the incidence of mastitis.The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of Vitamins C, E, α tocopherol, A, β-carotene, Cu, Zn, and Se in the incidence of mastitis.


mastitis; free radicals; antioxidant; trace mineral

Full Text:



Abd-Ellah, M.R. 2013. Role of Free Radi-cals and Antioxidants in Mastitis. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Re-search, 3 : 1-7.

Allison, R. D., and Laven R. A. 2001.Effect of vitamin E supple-mentation on the health and fertility of dairy cows: a review. Veterinary Record, 147 (25): 703-708.

Andrews, A.H., Blowey, R.W., Boyd, H., and Eddy, R.G. 2003. Bovine Med-icine: Diseases and Husbandry of Cattle. Blackwell Publishing, Victo-ria.

Anri, A. 2008. Manual on Mastitis Control. The Project for Improvement of Countermeasures on the Productive Diseases on dairy Cattle in Indone-sia. Jica Indonesia Office, Jakarta.

Antila, P., and Antila. V. 1979. The effect of mastitis on riboflavin, vitamin C and cholesterol contents of cow's milk. Meijerrieteellinen Aikakauskir-ja, 37: 23-32.

Anton, A., Solcan, G., and Solcan, C. 2013. The impact of copper and zinc deficiency on milk production performances of intensively grazed dairy cows on the north-east of Romania. International Journal of Biological, Veterinary, Agricultural and Food Engineering, 7(8): 409-414.

Arvidson, A.K., Ekman, T., Emanuelson, U., Gustavsson, A.H., Sandgren, C.H., Holtenius, K., Waller, K.P., and Svensson, C. 2005. Feeding factors associated with clinical mas-titis of first parity cows Mastitis in dairy production: current knowledge and future solutions. H. Hogeveen. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen.

Atakisi, O., Oral, H., Atakisi, E., Merhan, O., Pancarci, S.M., Ozcana, A., Marasli, S., Polat, B., Colak, A., and Kaya, S. 2010. Subclinical mas-titis causes alterations in nitric ox-ide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk. Research in Veterinary Science, 89(1): 10-13.

Atroshi, F., Tyopponen, J., Sankari, S., Kangasniemi, R., and Parantainen, J. 1986. Possible roles of vitamin E and glutathione metabolism in bo-vine mastitis. International Journal of Vitamin Nutrition Research, 57(1): 37-43.

Baldi, A., Savoini, G., Pinotti, L., Mon-fardini, E., Cheli, F., and Del Orto, V. 2000. Effects of vitamin E and different energy sources on vitamin E status, milk quality and reproduc-tion in transition cows. J. Vet. Med, 47 (10) :599-608.

Barkema, H.W., Schukken, Y.H., Lam, T.J.G.M., Beiboer, M.L., Benedic-tus, G., and Brand, A. 1999. Man-agement practices associated with the incidence rate of clinical masti-tis. J. Dairy Sci, 82(8): 1643–1654.

Barros, M., Perciano, P.G., dos Santo, M.H., De Oliveira, L.L., D’Martin Costa, E., and Moreira, M.A.S. 2017. Antibacterial Activity of 7-Epiclusianone and Its Novel Copper Metal Complex on Streptococcus spp. Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Their Cytotoxicity in MAC-T Cells. Molecules, 22(823): 1-15

Batra, T.R., Hidiroglou M. and Smith, M.W. 1992. Effect of vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in dairy cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Sci-ence, 72(2):287-297

Bendich, A. 1990. Antioxidant Vitamins and Their Functions in Immune Re-sponses. In: Bendich A., Phillips M., Tengerdy R.P. (eds) Antioxi-dant Nutrients and Immune Func-tions. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, (262). Springer, Boston, MA

Blomquist, N. 2008. Mastitis in Beef Cows. Frequently asked question. Alberta. Agricultural and Rural develop-ment.

Bouwstra, R.J., Nielen, M., Stegeman, J. A., Dobbelaar, P., Newbold, J. R., Jansen, E. H. J. M. and van Werven, T. 2010. Vitamin E supplementation during the dry period in dairy cat-tle.Part I: Adverse effect on inci-dence of mastitis postpartumin a double-blind randomized field trial. J. Dairy Sci, 93(12): 5684–5695.

Boyne, R., and Arthur, J. R. 1979. Altera-tions of neutrophil function in sele-nium-deficient cattle. J. Comp. Pathol, 89(1): 151-158.

Burton, G. W., and M. G. Traber. 1990. Vitamin E: antioxidant activity, bi-okinetics, and bioavailability. Annu. Rev. Nutr, 10: 357–382.

Burton, G. W., Wronska, U., Stone, L., Foster, D. O., and lngold, K. U. 1990. Biokinetics of dietary RRR-ot-tocopherol in the male guinea pig at three dietary levels of vitamin C and two levels of vitamin E. Evi-dence that vitamin C does not "spare" vitamin E in vivo. Lipids, 25(4): 199-210.

Campbell, B. T., Maas, J., Wober, B. W., Hedstrom, O. R., and Norman, B. B. 1990. Safety and efficacy of two sustained-release intra-reticular se-lenium supplements and the associ-ated placenta and colostrums trans-fer of selenium in beef cattle. Amer-ican Journal of Veterinary Re-search, 51(5): 813-817.

Celi, P. 2010. The role of oxidative stress in small ruminants’ health and produc-tion. R. Bras. Zootec, 39: 348-363.

Cerone, S.I., Sansinanea, A.S., Streiten-berger, S.A., Garcia, M.C and Au-za, N.J. 1998. The effect of copper deficiency on the peripheral blood cells of cattle. Veterinary Research Communications, 22(1):47-57.

Cervinkova, D., Vlkova, H., Borodacova, I., Makovcova, J., Babak, V., Lorencova, A., Vrtkova, I., Ma-rosevic, D., and Jaglic, Z. 2013. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens in milk from clinically healthy cows. Veterinarni Medicina, 58(11): 567–575.

Chaiyotwittayakun, A., Erskine, R. J., Bartlett, P. C., Herd, T. H., Sears, P. M., and Harmont, R. J. 2002. The effect of ascorbic acid and L-histidine therapy on acute mammary inflammation in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci, 85(1): 60-67.

Chandra, G., Aggarwal, A., Singh, A.K., Kumar, M., and Upadhyay, R.C. 2013. Effect of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Energy Metab-olites, Lipid Peroxidation, and Milk Production in Peripartum Sahiwal Cows. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 26(11): 1569-1576.

Chew, B.P., and Park, J.S. 2004. Carote-noid action on the immune re-sponse. Journal of Nutrition, 134(1): 257–261.

Chew, B.P., Hollen, L.L., Hillers J.K. and Herlugson, M.L. 1982.Relationship Between Vitamin A and β-Carotene in Blood Plasma and Milk and Mas-titis in Holsteins. J Dairy Sci, 65: 2111-2118.

Conforti, A., Franco, L., Milanino, R., and Velo, G. 1982. Copper and cerulo-plasmin (Cp) concentrations during the acute inflammatory process in rats. Agents Actions, 12(3):303–307.

Cortinhas, C.S., Botaro, B.G., Sucupira, M.C.A., Renno, F.P., Santos, M.V. 2010. Antioxidant enzymes and somatic cell count in dairy cows fed with organic source of zinc, copper and selenium. Livestock Science, 127(2010): 84–87.

Daga, J.D., Acorda, J.A., and Rayos, A.A. 2013. Effects Of Conventional White Needle Acupuncture And Aquapuncture On Mastitis And Milk Production In Dairy Cattle. Philipp J Vet Anim Sci, 39(1): 133-140.

Davidov, I., Radinović, M., Erdeljan, M., Cincović, M.R., Stančić, I., and Belić, B. 2013. Relations between blood Zinc oncentrations and udder health in dairy cows. Revue Méd. Vét., 164(4): 183-190

Davidov, I., Radinović, M., Erdeljan, M., Jurakić, Z., and Kovačević, Z. 2014. Zinc Effect on Milk Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Cows. Acta Scienti-ae Veterinariae, 42(1): 1-5.

Enjalbert, F., Lebreton, P., and Salat O. 2006. Effects of copper, zinc and selenium status on performance and health in commercial dairy and beef herds. Respective study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nu-trition, 90(11-12): 459- 466.

Fabiani, R., De Bartolomeo, A., Rosignoli, P., Morozzi, G. 2001. Antioxidants prevent the lymphocyte DNA dam-age induced by PMA-stimulated monocytes. Nutr Cancer, 39(2): 284-291.

Gaafar, H.M.A., Basiuoni, M.I., Ali, M.F.E., Shitta, A.A., and Shamas, A.S.E. 2010. Effect of zinc methio-nine supplementation on somatic cell count in milk and mastitis in Friesian cows. Archiva Zootechnica, 13(2): 36-46.

Gakhar, G., Randhawa, S S Randhawa, C S Bansal B K and Singh, R S. 2010. Effect of copper on the milk quality and prevention of mastitis in dairy cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sci-ences, 80(8): 727–728.

Gangwar, P., Upadhyay, A.K., Gangwar, N.K., and Rajput, M.K.S. 2008. Re-lationship of mineral and vitamin supplementation with mastitis. Vet World, 1(4):103–104.

Gengelbach, G. P., Ward, J. D., Spears, J. W., and Brown, T. T. Jr. 1997. Ef-fects of copper deficiency and cop-per deficiency coupled with high dietary iron or molybdenum on phagocytic cell function and re-sponse of calves to a respiratory disease challenge. J. Anim. Sci, 75(4): 1112–1118.

Goff, J.P., and Stabel, J.R. 1990. De-creased plasma retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and zinc concentration during the periparturient period, Ef-fect of milk fever. Journal of Dairy Science, 73(11): 3195-3199.

Graham, T.W. 1991. Trace element defi-ciencies in cattle. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Food Anim. Pract, 7(1): 153–215.

Green MJ, Bradley AJ, Medley GF, Brownet WJ. 2007. Cow, farm and management factors during the dry period that determine the rate of clinical mastitis after calving. J Dairy Sci, 90: 3764-3776.

Green, M.J., Green, L.E., Medley, G.F., Schukken, Y.H., and Bradley, A.J., 2002. Influence of dry period bacte-rial intramammary infection on clin-ical mastitis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 85(10): 2589-2599.

Gropper, S.S., Smith, J., and Groff, J. 2005. Advanced Nutrition and Hu-man Metabolism: Copper transport and uptake. 4th ed. Wadsworth. Belmont, CA.

Gu, B.B., Zhu, Y.M., Zhu, W., Miao, J.F., Deng, Y.E.,, and Zou, S.X. 2009. Retinoid protects rats against neu-trophilinduced oxidative stress in acute experimental mastitis. Interna-tional Immunopharmacology, 9(2): 223-229.

Harmon, R. J. 1994. Physiology of mastitis and factors affecting somatic cell counts. Journal of Dairy Science, 77(7): 2103-2112.

Harmon, R. J. 1998. Trace minerals and dairy cattle: Importance for udder health. in Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques, ed. Nottingham Univ. Press, Nottingham, UK.

Harrison, J. H., Hancock, D. D., and Con-rad, H. R. 1984. Vitamin E and se-lenium for reproduction of the dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci, 67(1):123-132.

Hemingway, R.G. 1999. The Influences of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E In-takes on Milk Somatic Cell Counts and Mastitis in Cows. Vet Res Commun, 23(8): 481 499.

Herry, V., Gitton, C., Tabouret, G., Répé-rant, M., Forge, L., Tasca, C., Gil-bert, F.B., Guitton, E., Barc, C., Staub, C, Smith, D.G.E., Germon, P., Foucras, G., and Rainard, P. 2017. Local immunization impacts the response of dairy cows to Esch-erichia coli mastitis. Scientific Re-ports, 7: 3441: 1-18.

Hillerton, J.E., and Berry, E.A. 2005. Treating mastitis in the cow – a tra-dition or an archaism. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98(6): 1250–1255.

Hoekstra, W. G. 1975. Biochemical func-tion of selenium and its relation to vitamin E. Fed. Proc, 34 (11): 2083-2089.

Hogan, J. S., Weiss, W. P., and Smith, K. L. 1993. Role of vitamin E and se-lenium in host defence against mas-titis. Journal of Dairy Science, 76(9): 2795-2803.

Hogan, J.S., Smith, K.L., Weiss, W.P., Todhunter, D.A., and Schockey, W.L. 1990. Relationships among vitamin E, selenium, and bo-vine blood neutrophils. J Dairy Sci, 73(9): 2372-2378.

Hoque, M.N., Das, Z.C., Rahman, A.N.M.A., and Hoque M.M. 2016. Effect of administration of vitamin E, selenium and antimicrobial thera-py on incidence of mastitis, produc-tive and reproductive performances in dairy cows. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, 4(2): 63–77.

Horky, P. 2015. Effect of selenium on its content in milk and performance of dairy cows in ecological farming. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 9(1): 324–329.

Hulsen, J.H.J.L., and Lam, T.J.G.M. 2007. Udder health: a practical guide to first-rate udder health. ISBN 9789087400149

Ibeagha, A.E., Ibeagha-Awemu, E.M., Mehrzad, J., Baurhoo, B., Kgwatalala, P., and Zhao, X. 2009. The effect of selenium sources and supplementation on neutrophil func-tions in dairy cows. Animal, 3(7):1037-1043.

Islam, M.A., Islam, M.Z., Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.S., and Islam, M.T. 2011. Prevalence of subclinical mas-titis in dairy cows in selected areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Vet Med, 9(1):73-78.

Javaid, S.B., Gadahi, J.A., Khaskeli, M., Bhutto, M.B., Kumbher, S., and Panhwar, A.H. 2009. Physical and chemical quality of market milk sold at Tandojam, Pakistan. Pakistan Vet. J, 29(1):27-31.

Jin, L., Yan, S.M., Shi, B.L., Bao, H.Y., Gong, J., Guo, X.Y., and Li, J.L. 2014. Effects of vitamin A on the milk performance, antioxidant func-tions and immune functions of dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 192: 15-23.

Johansson, B., Waller, K.P., Jensen, S. K., Lindqvist, H., and Nadeau, E. 2014. Vitamins E and A and β-carotene status and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without syn-thetic vitamins. J. Dairy Sci, 97(3): 1682–1692.

Jones, D. G., and Suttle, N. F. 1986. Cop-per and disease resistance in sheep: a rare natural confirmation of inter-action between a specific nutrient and infection. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 45(3): 317–325.

Jones, D., and Suttle, N. 1981. Some ef-fects of copper deficiency on leuco-cyte function in sheep and cattle. Res. Vet. Sci, 31(2): 151–156.

Jones, G.M., and Bailey, T.L. Jr. 2009. Un-derstanding the Basic of Mastitis. Virginia: Virginia Cooperative Ex-tension Publication.

Jóźwik A., Strzałkowska N., Bagnicka E., Grzybek W., Krzyżewski J., Poław-ska E., Kolataj A., and Horbańczuk J.O. 2012. Relationship between milk yield, stage of lactation and some blood serum metabolic param-eters of dairy cows. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 57(8): 353-360.

Jukola, E., Hakkarainen, J., Saloniemi. H., and Sankari, S. 1996. Blood Seleni-um, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, and βCarotene Concentrations and Ud-der Health, Fertility Treatments, and Fertility. Journal of Dairy Sci-ence, 79(5): 838-845.

Kalińska, A., Gołębiewski, M., and Wójcik, A. 2017. A Review : Mastitis path-ogens in dairy cattle. World Scien-tific News, 89: 22-31.

Karimuribo, E.D., Fitzpatrick, J.L., Swai, E.S., Bell, C., Bryant, M.J., Ogden, N.H., Kambarage, D.M., and French, N. P. 2008. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania. Vet Rec., 163(1): 16-21.

Kellogg, D.W., Tomlinson, D.J., Socha, M.T., and Johson, A.B. 2004. Re-view: effects of zinc methionine complex on milk production and somatic cell count of dairy cows: twelve-trial summary. The Profes-sional Animal Scientist, 20(4): 295-301.

Kirk, J.H., and Lauerman, L.H. 1994. My-coplasma mastitis in dairy cows. Veterinarian, 61(2): 541-551.

Klastrup, O., Bakken, G., Bramley, J., and Bushnell, R. 1987. Environmental influences on bovine mastitis. Bulle-tin of the international dairy federa-tion.

Kleczkowski, M., Kluciński, W., Shaktur, A., and Sikora, J. 2005. Concentra-tion of ascorbic acid in the blood of cows with subclinical mastitis. Polish Journal of Veterinary Scienc-es, 8(2): 121-125.

Knaapen, A.M., Seiler, F., Schilderman, P.A., Nehls, P., Bruch, J., Schins, R.P., and Borm, P.J. 1999. Neutro-phils cause oxidative DNA damage in alveolar epithelial cells. Free Rad-ical Biology and Medicine, 27(1-2): 234-240.

Kommisrud, E., Østerås, O., and Vatn, T. 2005. Blood Selenium Associated with Health and Fertility in Norwe-gian Dairy Herds. Acta Vet. Scand., 46(4): 229-240.

Krukowski, H. 2001. Mycotic mastitis in cows. Medycyna weterynaryjna, 57(1):18-20

Kumar, R., Yadav, B. R., and Singh, R. S. 2010. Genetic determinants of anti-biotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk of mastitic crossbred cattle. Curr. Microbio l60(5): 379–386.

Kurjogi, M.M., and Kaliwal, B.B. 2014. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District. Interna-tional Scholarly Research Notices, 2014: 1-9.

Larvor, P. 1983. The Pools of Celluler Nu-trients: Mineral. In. P.M. Riss: Dy-namic Biochemistry of Animal Pro-duction Ed. Elsivier. Amsterdam.

Leavens, H., Deluyker, H., Schukken, Y. H., Meulemeester, L., Vander-meersch, R., Muêlenaere, E., and Kruif, A. 1997. Influence of parity and stage of lactation on the somat-ic cell count in bacteriologically negative dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science, 80(12): 3219-3226.

LeBlanc, S. J., Herdt, T. H., Seymour, W. M., Duffield, T. F., and Leslie, K. E. 2004. Peripartum serum vitamin E, retinol, and betacarotene in dairy cattle and their associations with disease. J. Dairy Sci., 87(3): 609–619.

Leeson, S., and Summers, J. D. 1991. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Uni-versity Books, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Lyons, M.P., Papazyan, T.T., and Surai, P.F. 2007. Selenium in food chain and animal nutrition: Lessons from nature : Review. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 20(7): 1135–1155.

Machado, V.S., Bicalho, M.L.S., Pereira, R.V., Caixeta, L.S., Knauer, W.A., Oikonomou, G., Gilbert, R.O., and Bicalho, R.C. 2013. Effect of an in-jectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese on the health and production of lactating Holstein cows. The Veterinary Journal, 197(2): 451-456.

Matsui, T. 2012. Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 25(5): 597-605.

McDowell L.R. 2003. Minerals In Animal And Human Nutrition. 2nd ed. Else-vier Science B.V., Netherlands.

McDowell, L.R., Conrad, J.H., Ellis, G.L., and Loosli, J.K. 1983. Mineral for grazing ruminants in tropical re-gions. Dept. of Anim. Sci. Centre for Tropical Agric. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville and the US Agency for International Development.

Michal, J.J., Heirman, L.R., Wong, T.S., Chew, B.P., Frigg, M., and Volker, L. 1994. Modulatory effects of die-tary B-carotene on blood and mammary leukocyte function in per-iparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 77: 1408-1421.

Miller, J. K., Slebodzinska, E.B., and Mad-sen, F. C. 1993. Oxidative stress, antioxidants, and animal function. J. Dairy Sci., 76(9): 2812–2823.

Morgante, M., Beghelli, D., Pauselli, M., Dallara, P., Capuccella, M., and Ra-nucci, S. 1999. Effect of admin-istration of vitamin E and selenium during the dry period on mammary health and milk cell counts in dairy ewes. J Dairy Sci., 82 (3):623–631.

Morin, D.E. and Hurley, W.L. 2003. Masti-tis: Lesson B. University of Illinois, USA.

Muhee, A., Malik, H. U., Asharaf, I., Shah, O. S., Jan, A., Muheet, Rather, W., and Muzamil, S. 2017. Effect of Supplementation of Anti-Oxidant Mineral Formulation on Milk SCC and DCC in Bovine Mastitis. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 6(7): 4600-4608.

Murphy, M. D., and Quirke, W. Q. 1997. The effect of sulfur/nitrogen/ sele-nium interactions on herbage yield and quality. Irish Journal of Agri-cultural Food Research, 36(1): 31-38.

Naresh, R., Dwivedi, S. K., Swarup D. and Patra. R. C. 2002. Evaluation of Ascorbic Acid Treatment in Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis of Indian Dairy Cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 15(6): 905-911.

Noyce, J.O., Michels, H., and Keevil, C.W. 2006. Potential use of copper sur-faces to reduce survival of epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the health care environ-ment. J. Hosp. Infect, 63(3): 289–297.

NRC. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl Acad. Press, Washington, DC

O’Rourke, D. 2009. Nutrition and udder health in dairy cows: A review. Irish Veterinary Journal, 62(4): 15-20.

Oldham, E.R., Eberhart, R.J., and Muller, L.D., 1991. Effects of supplemental vitamin A or b-carotene during the dry period and early lactation on udder health. Journal of Dairy Sci-ence, 74(11): 3775–3781.

Oltramari, C.E., Pinheiro, M.G., de Miran-da, M.S., Arcaro, J.R.P.,Castelani, L., Toledo, L.M., Ambrósio, L.A., Leme, P.R., Manella M.Q., and Ar-caro Júnior, I. 2014. Selenium Sources in the Diet of Dairy Cows and Their Effects on Milk Produc-tion and Quality, on Udder Health and on Physiological Indicators of Heat Stress. Italian Journal of Ani-mal Science, 13(1): 48-52.

Oltramari, C.E., Pinheiro, M.G., de Miran-da, M.S., Arcaro, J.R.P., Castelani, L., Toledo, L.M., Ambrósio, L.A., Leme, P.R., Manella, M.Q., and Júnior, I.A. 2016. Selenium Sources in the Diet of Dairy Cows and Their Effects on Milk Production and Quality, on Udder Health and on Physiological Indicators of Heat Stress. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 13(1): 48-52.

Paape, M. J., Bannerman, D. D., Zhao, X. and Lee, J. W. 2003. The bovine neutrophil: structure and function in blood and milk. Veterinary Re-search, 34(5): 597-627.

Pillai, S.R., Kunze, E., Sordillo, L.M., and Jayarao, B.M. 2001. Application of differential inflammatory cell count as a tool to monitor udder health. J. Dairy Sci., 84(6): 1413-1420.

Plum, L., Rink, L., and Haase, H. 2010. The essential toxin: Impact of zinc on human health, International Journal of Environ Research Public Health, 7(4): 1342-1365.

Politis, I., Bizelis, I., Tsiaras, A., and Baldi, A. 2004. Effect of vitamin E sup-plementation on neutrophil func-tion, milk composition and plasmin activity in dairy cows in a commer-cial herd. J. Dairy Res., 71(3): 273–278.

Politis, I., Hidiroglou, N., White, J. H., Gilmore , J. A., Williams S. N., Scherf, , H., and Frigg, M. 1996. Effects of vitamin E on mammary and blood leukocyte function, with emphasis on chemotaxis, in peripar-turient dairy cows. Am. J. Vet. Res., 57(4): 468–471.

Poole, S.C., Bohman, V. R., and Young, J.A. 1989. Review of selenium in soils, plants, and animals in Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist, 49(2): 201-213.

Pothmann, H., Spergser, J., Elmer, J., Prun-ner, I., Iwersen, M., Klein-Jöbstl, D., and Drillich, M. 2015. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd. Journal of Vet-erinary Diagnostic Investigation, 27(6): 777–783.

Prihutomo, S., Setiani, B.E., dan Harjanti, D.W. 2015. Screening sumber ce-maran bakteri pada kegiatan pemerahan susu di peternakan sapi perah rakyat Kabupaten Semarang. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan, 25(1): 66-71.

Prohaska, J. R., and Lukasewycz, O. A. 1990. Effects of copper deficiency on the immune system. in Antioxidant Nutrients and Immune Functions. A. Bendich, M. Phillips, and R. P. Tengerdy, ed. Plenum Press, New York.

Rabiee, A.R., Lean I.J., Stevenson, M.A., and Socha M.T. 2010. Effects of feeding organic trace minerals on milk production and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows: A meta-analysis. J. Dairy Sci., 93(9): 4239-4251.

Radostits. O.M., Gay. C.C., Blood.D.C., and Hinchcliff. K.W. 2000. Veteri-nary Medicine; A Textbook of Dis-eases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses. 9th ed. W. B. Saunders. London.

Ranjan, R., Swarup, D., Naresh, R., and Patra, R.C. 2005. Enhanced eryth-rocytic lipid peroxides and reduced plasma ascorbic acid, and alteration in blood trace elements level in dairy cows with mastitis. Vet Res Commun., 29(1): 27-34.

Reneau, J.K. 2001. Prepping cows: who needs it? Proceedings NMC 40th annual meeting, 40: 33-42.

Reyes-Jara, A., Cordero, N., Aguirre, J., Miriam Troncoso, M., and Guiller-mo Figueroa, G. 2016. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorgan-isms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis. Front. Microbiol, 7(626): 1-10.

Rice, D.A., and Kennedy, S. 1988. As-sessment of vitamin E, selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acid interac-tions in the aetiology of disease in the bovine. Proceedings of The Nu-trition Society, 47(2): 177-184.

Saha, U., Fayiga, A., Hancock, D., and So-non, L. 2016. Selenium in Animal Nutrition: Deficiencies in Soils and Forages, Requirements, Supplemen-tation and Toxicity. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sci-ences, 2(6): 112-125.

Sandholm, M. 1995. Detection of inflam-matory changes in milk. University of Helsinki : Helsinki.

Santo, C.E., Lam, E.W., Elowsky, C.G., Quaranta, D., Domaille, D.W., Chang, C.J., and Grass, G. 2011. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces. Applied And Envi-ronmental Microbiology, 77(3): 794–802.

Santos, M.V., Lima, F.R., Rodrigues, P.H., Barros, S.B., and Laranja-Fonseca, L.F. 2001. Plasma ascorbate con-centrations are not correlated with milk somatic cell count and meta-bolic profile in lactating and dry cows. J Dairy Sci., 84(1):134–139.

Saroj, S., Ganguly, S., and Mahajan, T. 2015. Applied Nutritional Manage-ment Of Clinical Mastitis In Dairy Cattle: A Review. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 4(5): 1351-1359.

Sauberlich, H. E. 1994. Pharmacology of vitamin C. Annu. Revista De Nu-tricao-Brazilian Journal of Nutri-tion, 14: 371–391.

Scaletti, R. W., Trammell, D. S., Smith, B. A., and Harmon, R. J. 2003. Role of Dietary Copper in Enhancing Re-sistance to Escherichia coli Mastitis. J. Dairy Sci., 86(4): 1240–1249.

Schepers, A. J., Lam, T. J. G. M., Schuk-ken, Y. H., Wilmink, J.B., and Hanekamp, W.J. 1997. Estimation of variance components for somatic cell counts to determine thresholds for uninfected quarters. Journal of Dairy Science, 80(8):1833- 1840.

Schukken, Y. H., Wilson, D. J., Welcome, F., Garrison-Tikofsky, L. and Gon-zales, R. N. 2003. Monitoring udder health and milk quality using somat-ic cell counts. Veterinary Research, 34(5): 579-596.

Seegers, H., Fourichon, C., and Beaudeau, F.2003. Production effects rated to mastitis and mastitis eonomics in dairy cattle herds. Vet. Res., 34(5): 475-491.

Smith, J.A. 1994. Neutrophils, host de-fense, and inflammation: a double edged sword. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 56(6) :672-686.

Smith, K. L. Weiss, W. P., and Hogan J. S. 2014. Influence Of Vitamin E And Selenium On Mastitis And Milk Quality In Dairy Cows. Texas Ani-mal Nutrition Council : 55-62.

Smith, K. L., and J. S. Hogan. 2001. The world of mastitis. Proceedings of 2nd International symposium on mastitis and milk quality, Vancou-ver, BC, Canada.

Smith, K. L., Hogan, J. S., and Weiss, W. P. 1997. Dietary vitamin E and se-lenium affect mastitis and milk quality. J. Anim. Sci., 75(6): 1659-1665.

Smith, K.L. 1986. Vitamin E enhancement of immune response and e¡ects on mastitis in dairy cows : the value of vitamins in animal nutrition. Roche Symposium : London.

Smith, K.L., Harrison, J. H., Hancock, D. D., Todhunter, D. A., and Conrad, H. R. 1984. Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplementation on Incidence of Clinical Mastitis and Duration of Clinical Symptoms. J Dairy Sci., 67(6): 1293-1300.

Smith, K.L., Hogan, J.S. and Weiss, B.P. 1989. Dietary selenium and vitamin E influence the resistance of cows to mastitis. Proceedings of the British Mastitis Conference, Cambridge, UK.

Sordillo, L. M. 2016. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity. J. Dairy Sci., 99(6): 4967–4982.

Sordillo, L.M., Contreras, G.A., and Ait-ken, S.L. 2009. Metabolic factors affecting the inflammatory response of periparturient dairy cows. Animal Health Research Reviews, 10(1): 53-63.

Sordillo, L.M., O’Boyle, N., Gandy, J.C., Corl, C.M., and Hamilton, E. 2007. Shifts in thioredoxin reductase ac-tivity and oxidant status in mono-nuclear cells obtained from transi-tion dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(3): 1186-1192.

Sordillo, L.M., Weaver, S.K., and DeRosa, D. 1997. Immunobiology of the mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Science, 80(8): 1851-1865.

Souto, L.I., Minagawa, C.Y., Telles, E.O., Garbuglio, M.A., Amaku, M., Mel-ville, P.A., Dias, R.A., Sakata, S.T., and Benites, N.R. 2010. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media. J. Dairy Res., 77(1): 63- 70.

Spears, J.W., 2003. Trace mineral bioavail-ability in ruminants. Journal of Nu-trition, 133(5): 1506–1509.

Spears, J.W., and Weiss, W.P. 2008. Role of antioxidants and trace elements in health and immunity of transition dairy cows. The Veterinary Journal, 176(2008): 70–76.

Sripad, K., Upendra, H.A. and Yathiraj, S. 2016. Efficacy of Organic and In-organic Selenium in Treatment of Bovine Subclinical Mastitis. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sci-ence, 9(4): 31-35.

Steffert, I. J. 1993. Compositional changes in cows milk association with health problems. Bull. Milk Fat Flavour Forum, 119-125.

Stovlbaek-Pederson, P. 1975. The preven-tion of mastitis - Other factors. Proc. Seminar Mastitis Control, Int. Dairy Fed., Brussels, Belgium.

Strobel, M., Tinz, J., and Biesalski, H.K. 2007. The importance of β-carotene as a source of vitamin A with spe-cial regard to pregnant and breast-feeding women. European Journal of Nutrition, 46(1): 11-20.

Suriyasathaporn, W., Schukken, Y. H., Nielen, M. and Brand, A. 2000. Low somatic cell count: a risk factor for subsequent clinical mastitis in a dairy herd. Journal of Dairy Sci-ence, 83(6): 1248-1255.

Suriyasathaporn, W., Vinitketkumnuen, U., Chewonarin, T.,Boonyayatra, S., Kreausukon, K., and Schukken, Y.H. 2006. Higher somatic cell counts resulted in highermalondial-dehyde concentrations in raw cows’ milk. International Dairy Journal, 16(9): 1088-1091.

Surjowardojo, P., Suyadi, Hakimi, L dan Aulanni'am. 2008. Profil Protein In-terleukin.S (Il-8) pada Serum Darah dan Susu Sapi Perah Mastitis. Jurnal Ilmu Ilmu Peternakan, 18(1): 36-50

Tjoelker, L.W., Chew, B.P., Tanaka, T.S., and Daniel, L.R. 1990. Effect of Dietary Vitamin A and β-Carotene on Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte and Lymphocyte Function in Dairy Cows During the Early Dry Period. Journal of Dairy Science, 73(4): 1017-1022.

Tolle, A. 1975. Mastitls: The disease in re-lation to control methods. Proc. Seminar on Mastitis Control. Int. Dairy Fed., Brussels, Belgium.

Torre, P., Hemken, R., Harmon, R., Hemken, R., Clark, T., Trammell, D., and Smith, B. 1996. Mild die-tary copper insufficiency depresses blood neutrophil function in dairy cattle. J. Nutr. Immunol., 4(3): 3–24.

Van Knegsel, A., Van der Meulen, J., Lammers, A. 2008. Nutritional ef-fects on development and function of the mucosal immune system – with a focus on pigs and poultry. Report ASG for Product Board Animal Feed, The Netherlands.

Warnes, S.L., Green, S.M., Michels, H.T., and Keevil. C.W. 2010. Biocidal ef-ficacy of copper alloys against pathogenic enterococci involves degradation of genomic and plas-mid DNAs. Appl. Environ. Micro-biol., 76(16): 5390–5401.

Weiss, W. P. 2002. Relationship of mineral and vitamin supplementation with mastitis and milk quality. National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. 37–44.

Weiss, W. P., Hogan, J. S., and Smith, K. L. 1994. Use of α-tocopherol con-centrations in blood components to assess vitamin E status of dairy cows. Agri-Practice, 15(7): 5–8.

Weiss, W. P., J. S. Hogan, D. A. Todhunter, and K. L. Smith. 1997. Effect of vitamin E supplementa-tion in diets with a low concentra-tion of selenium on mammary gland health of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 80(8): 1728–1737.

Weiss, W.P., and Hogan, J.S. 2007. Effects of dietary vitamin C on neutrophil function and responses to intra-mammary infusion of lipopolysac-charide in periparturient dairy cows. J Dairy Sci., 90(2): 731–739.

Weiss, W.P., and Spears, J.W. 2006. Vita-mins and trace mineral effects on immune function of ruminants : Ru-minant Physiology. Wageningen Acad. Publ., Utrecht, the Nether-lands.

Weiss, W.P., Hogan, J.S., and Smith, K.L. 2004. Changes in vitamin C concen-trations in plasma and milk from dairy cows after an intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(1): 32-37.

Weiss, W.P., Hogan, J.S., Smith, K.L. and Hoblet, K.H. 1990. Relationships among Se, vitamin E and mammary gland health in commercial dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science, 73(2): 381-390.

Wellenberg, G.J., Van der Poel W.H.M., and Van Oirschot J.T. 2002. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a re-view. Vet Microbiol., 88(1): 37-45.

Whist, A.C., Østerås, O., and Sølverød, L. 2007. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates at calving and lactation per-formance within the same lactation. J Dairy Sci., 90(2): 766-78.

Whitaker, D.A., Eayres, H.F., Aitchison, K., and Kelly, J.M. 1997. No effect of a dietary zinc proteinate on clini-cal mastitis, infection rate, recovery rate and somatic cell count in dairy cows. The Veterinary Journal, 153(2): 197-203.

Whiteman, D. H., Tomkins, N. W., Young, R. J. B., Immig, I., Weber, G., and Elliott, R. 2010. Mastitis in beef cows and the effects of supple-mental β-carotene on milk parame-ters. Animal Production Sci-ence, 50(6): 503-507.

Wina, E. 2008. Manfaat Senyawa Karote-noid Dalam Hijauan Pakan Untuk Sapi Perah (Carotenoid Compounds in Forages for Dairy Cattle). Semi-loka Nasional Prospek Industri Sapi Perah Menuju Perdagangan Bebas 2020 : 124-129.

Yang, F.L., and Li, X.S. 2015. Role of an-tioxidant vitamins and trace ele-ments in mastitis in dairy cows. J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 2(1): 1-9.

Yang, F.L., Li, X.S., and He, B.X. 2011. Effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk production in dairy cows: A review. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(14): 2574-2578.

Young, A.J., and Lowe, G.L. 2018. Carot-enoids : Antioxidant Properties. An-tioxidants, 7(28): 2-4.

Zalizar , L., Sujono, Indratmi, D., dan Yovi A Soedarsono, Y.A. 2018. Kasus mastitis sub klinis pada sapi perah laktasi di Kecamatan Pujon Kabu-paten Malang. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pe-ternakan, 28(1): 35 – 41.

Zhu, L., Elguindi, J., Rensing, C., and Rav-ishankar, S. 2012. Antimicrobial ac-tivity of different copper alloy sur-faces against copper resistant and sensitive Salmonella enterica. Food Microbiol., 30(1): 303–310.

Zubay, G. 1993. Biochemistry, 3rd ed. Brown Publisher, Oxford, England.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.