Potensi jerami sebagai pakan ternak ruminansia


  • yanuartono - yanuartono Fakultas kedokteran Hewan UGM, Yogyakarta
  • Hary Purnamaningsih Fakultas kedokteran Hewan UGM, Yogyakarta
  • Soedarmanto Indarjulianto Fakultas kedokteran Hewan UGM, Yogyakarta
  • Alfarisa Nururrozi




livestock, rice straw, processing methods, nutritional value


The basic reason for poor performance of livestock in developing countries, include Indonesia,  is qualitative fluctuations in feed. Therefore knowledge in utilizing agroindustry byproduct as feedstuff to meet nutrient requirement of animals is important. Rice straw is a crop residue of rice production and can be used as a feed for ruminants because it is easily and cheaply available in many Asian countries. Rice straws have low nutritive value and it is generally limited by several factors such as the low nutritional quality due to high fiber content and lignification process. In Indonesia, rice straw has been widely utilised in livestock feeding systems, thus the need to improve them is imperative as they are an abundant crop residue. Much more attention has been paid to improving its feeding value in order to increase livestock productivity. Many processing methods to improve the nutritive value of rice straw have been investigated. These methods can be classified as physical, chemical or biological. Usually, processing methods improves the nutritive value of straw by increasing its digestible energy content, by increasing feed intake, or by a combination of the two. This paper aims to examine the potential of rice straw as basal feed livestock as well as efforts to improve their nutritional value.

Key words: livestock, rice straw, processing methods, nutritional value

Author Biographies

yanuartono - yanuartono, Fakultas kedokteran Hewan UGM, Yogyakarta

departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, FKH-UGM

Hary Purnamaningsih, Fakultas kedokteran Hewan UGM, Yogyakarta

departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, FKH-UGM


Abd-Elsalam, H. E., and El-Hanafy, A. A. 2009. Lignin Biodegradation with Ligninolytic Bacterial Strain and Comparison of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus sp. Isolated from Egyptian Soil. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 39-44. ISSN 1818-6769.

Abo-State, M. A., Ragab, A. M. E., Sh. EL-Gendy, N., Farahat, L. A., and Madian, H. R. 2014. Bioethanol Production from Rice Straw Enzymatically Saccharified by Fungal Isolates, Trichoderma viride F94 and Aspergillus terreus F98. Soft, 3:19- 29.doi.org/10.4236/soft.2014.32003

Abou-El-Enin, O. H., Fadel, J. G., and Mackill, D. J. 1999. Differences in chemical composition and fibre digestion of rice straw with, without, anhydrous ammonia from 53 rice varieties. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 79:129-136. ISSN 0377-8401

Aganga, A.A., and Tshwenyane, S. 2004. Potentials of Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) as Forage Crop in Livestock Production. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 3 (1): 1-4. DOI : 10.3923/pjn.2004.1.4.

Agbagla-Dohnani, A., Noziere, P., Gaillard-Martinie, B., Puard, M., and Doreau. M. 2003. Effect of silica content on rice straw ruminal degradation. J. Anim. Sci. 140:183-192. DOI:Â https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859603003034

Alam, M. K., Ogata, Y., Sato, Y., and Sano H. 2016. Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 29:523-529. DOI:Â https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0358

Ali, M. 1998. Peningkatan mutu nutrisi sekam padi untuk ruminansia melalui hidrolisis ganda menggunakan kapur dan asam cuka. Thesis Program Pancasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor

Amin, M., Hasan, S.D., Yanuarianto, O., and Iqbal, M. 2015. Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Terhadap Kualitas Jerami Padi Amoniasi yang Ditambah Probiotik Bacillus Sp. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Indonesia, 1 (1) : 8 – 13. ISSN : 2460-6669

Anam, N. K., Pujaningsih, R. I., dan Prasetiyono. B. W. H. E. 2012. Kadar Neutral Detergent Fiber Dan Acid Detergent Fiber Pada Jerami Padi Dan Jerami Jagung Yang Difermentasi Isi Rumen Kerbau. Animal Agriculture Journal, 1. (2): 352-361

Ansah, T., Osafo, E.L.K., and Hansen, H. H. 2010. Herbage yield and chemical composition of four varieties of Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) grass harvested at three different days after planting Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 1(5): 923-929. doi:10.5251/abjna.2010.1.5.923.929

Antongiovanni, M., and Sargentini, C. 1991. Variability in Chemical Composition of Straws. OptionsMediterraneennes. Serie A: Seminaires Mediterraneens, 49-53.

Antonius, 2010. Pengaruh Pemberian Jerami Padi Terfermentasi Terhadap Palatabilitas Kecernaan Serat Dan Digestible Energy Ransum Sapi. Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner.

Antonius. 2009. Potensi Jerami Padi Hasil Fermentasi ProbionSebagai Bahan Pakan Dalam Ransum Sapi Simmental. Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. 240-245

Arora S. 1989. Pencernaan Mikroba pada Ruminansia, Terjemahan, Judul Asli: Microbial Digestion in Ruminants, Penerjemah Muwarni R., Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta.

Astutik, S. I. B., Arifin S. M., Dan Dilaga, W. 2002. Respon Produksi Sapi Peranakan Ongole Berbasis Pakan Jerami Padi Terhadap Berbagai Formula "Urea Molasses Block". Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner.

Bainton, S.J., Plumb, V.E., Drake, M.D., Juliano, B.O., Perez, C.M., Roxas, D.B., Kush, Lc. Dejesus, G.S., and Gomez, K.A. 1991. Variation in the nutritional value of rice straw. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tech. 34 (3-4): 261-277. doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(91)90116-A

Balasubramanian, M.K. 2013. Potential utilization of rice straw for ethanol production by sequential fermentation of cellulose and xylose using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus. International Journal of Science, Engineering, Technology and Research 2 (7): 1531-1535. ISSN: 2278 – 7798

Bata, M., dan Hidayat, N. 2010. Penambahan Molases Untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Amoniasi Jerami Padi dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Produk Fermentasi Rumen Secara In-Vitro. Agripet, 10 (2): 27-33.

Bata, M. 2008. Pengaruh Molases Pada Amoniasi Jerami Padi Menggunakan Urea Terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik In Vitro . Agripet, 8 (2): 15-20.

Binod, P., Sindhu, R, Singhania, R.R., Vikram, S., Devi, L., Nagalakshmi, S., Kurien, N., Sukumaran, R.K., and Pandey, A. 2010. Bioethanol production from rice straw: an overview. Bioresource Technology. 101(13): 4767–74. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.079Â

Castillo, L. S., Roxas, D. B., Chavez, M. A., Momongan, V. G., And Ranjhan, S. K. 1982. The effects of a concentrate supplement and of chopping and soaking rice straw on its voluntary intake by carabaos. In "The Utilization of Fibrous Agricultural Residues as Animal Feeds", :74-80, editor P. T. Doyle. School of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria.

Chairunnisa, C., Hanum, H., dan Mukhlis. 2013. Peran Beberapa Bahan Silikat (Si) Dan Pupuk Fosfat (P) Dalam Memperbaiki Sifat Kimia Tanah Andisol Dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman. Jurnal Online Agroekoteknologi, 1 (3): 732-743. ISSN No. 2337- 6597

Chellapandian, M., Arulnathan, N., and Thirumeignanam, D. 2016. Chemical Composition Of Tree Leaves For Small Ruminants In Southern Tamilnadu. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 5 (3):1303 – 1305.

Crampton, E. W., and Haris, L. E. 1969. Applied Animal Nutrition E, d. 1 st The Engsminger Publishing Company, California, U. S. A.

Dewi. 2002. Hidrolisis Limbah Hasil Pertanian Secara Enzimatik. J. Akta Agrosia. 5 (2): 67- 71

Dijkstra, J. and Tamminga, S. 1995. Simulation of the effects of diet on the contribution of rumen protozoa to degradation of fibre in the rumen. Br. J. Nutr. 74 (5): 617-634. DOI:Â https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19950166

Doyle, P.T., Devendra, C., and Pearce, G.R. 1996. Rice straw as a feed for ruminants. International Development Program of Australian Universities and Colleges Limited (IDP), Canberra, Australia.

Engsminger, M. E., and Olentine, C. G. 1980. Feed and Nutrition. 1 st Ed. The Engsminger Publishing Company. California. U. S. A.

Eun, J.S., Beauchemin, K.A., Hong, S.H., and Bauer, M.W. 2006.  Exogenous enzymes added to untreated or ammoniated rice straw : Effect on in vitro fermentation characteristic and degradability. J. Anim. Sci. and Tech, 131: 86â€101. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.01.026

Fahey, G.C., Bourquin, L.D., Titgemeyer, E.C., and Atwell, D.G. 1993. Postharvest treatment of fibrous feedstuffs to improve their nutritive value. P. 715-766 in Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestibility. H.G. Jung, D.R. Buxton, R.D. Hatfield, and J. Ralph, ed. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.

Fernandez, F. D., Ramos, A. K. B., Jank, L., Carvalho, M. A., Martha Jr, G. B., and Braga, G. J. 2014. Forage yield and nutritive value of Panicum maximum genotypes in the Brazilian savannah. Sci. Agric. 71(1): 23-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162014000100003Â

Filho, E. S. C., Muniz, E. N., de Albuquerque Range, J. H., de Arruda Santos, G. R., Neto, J. A. S., de Araujo, H. R. 2016. Dry matter yield and bromatological composition of gliricidia in different crop densities. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, 46 (6): 1038-1043. doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20150782Â

Firmani, U., Cahyoko, Y., and Mustikoweni. 2015. Utilization Turi Leaf Meal (Sesbania Grandiflora Pers.) in the Feed on the Protein Retention, Fat Retention and Energy Retention of Black Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus).International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering. 2 (07): 242-244. ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Ghaffar, S.H, and Fan, M. 2014. Lignin in straw and its applications as an adhesive. International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 48 :92–10.

Greenland, D. J. 1984. Upland rice. Outlook on Agriculture, 14: 21-26.

Gunam, I.B.W., and Antara, N.S. 1999. Study on Sodium Hydroxide Treatment of Corn Stalk to Increase Its Cellulose Saccharification Enzymatically by Using Culture Filtrate of Trichoderma reesei. Gitayana Agric. Technol. J. 5 (1): 34-38.

Hanum, Z., dan Usman, Y. 2011. Analisis Proksimat Amoniasi Jerami Padi Dengan Penambahan Isi Rumen. Agripet, 11(1):39-45.

Harun, S., and Geok, S.K. 2016. Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on Rice Straw Composition. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(21):1-9 DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i21/95245.

Hassen, A., Rethman, N.F.G., Van Niekerk, W.A., And Tjelele, T.J. 2007. Influence of season/year and species on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of five Indigofera accessions. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 136 (3-4): 312 - 322. DOI:Â http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.09.010

Hatakka, A. 2000. Biodegration of Lignin. University of Helsinki, Viikki Biocenter, Department of Applied Chemistry dan Microbiology. Helsinki.

Hau, D. K. M., Nenobais, J., Nulik, N., dan Katipana. G.F. 2005. Pengaruh Probiotik Terhadap Kemampuan Cerna Mikroba Rumen Sapi Bali. Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner.

Helal, G. A. 2005. Bioconversion of straw into improved fodder: Mycoprotein production and cellulolytic activity of rice straw decomposing fungi. Mycobiology 33 (2): 90-96. doi:Â Â 10.4489/MYCO.2005.33.2.090

Helal, G. A. 2006. Bioconversion of Straw into Improved Fodder: Preliminary Treatment of Rice Straw Using Mechanical, Chemical and/or Gamma Irradiation. Mycobiology 34(1): 14-21. doi:Â Â 10.4489/MYCO.2006.34.1.014

Howard, R., Abotsi, E.E., Jansen, L., and Howard, S. 2003. Lignocellulose biotechnology: Issues of bioconversion and enzyme production. African Journal of Biotechnology 2 (12): 602-619.

Ismail, C.H., Shajarutulwardah, M.Y., Arif, A. I., Shahida, H., Najib, M. Y., Helda, S. 2013. Keperluan pembajaan baka padi berhasil tinggi. Persidangan Padi Kebangsaan 2013. Seberang Jaya,Pulau Pinang.

Jafari, M.A, Nikkhah, A, Sadeghi, A.A., and Chamani, M.2007. The effect of Pleurotus spp. fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of rice straw. Pak J Biol Sci. 10(15):2460-2464. PMID:19070114

Jahromi, M. F., Liang, J. B., Rosfarizan, M., Goh, Y. M., Shokryazdan, P., and Ho, Y. W. 2010. Effects of Aspergillus niger (K8) on nutritive value of rice straw. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(42) :7043-7047. DOI: 0.5897/AJB10.231Â

Jalaludin, S. 1994. Feeding systems based on oil palm by products. Improving animal Production Systems Based on Local feed Resources. Proceeding of a Symposium 7th AAA.

Syamsu, J.A., Ali, H. M., and Yusuf, M. 2013. Application of Technology for Processing Rice Straw as Feed for Beef Cattle. International Conference on Agriculture and Biotechnology IPCBEE vol.60 () © (2013) IACSIT Press, Singapore DOI: 10.7763/IPCBEE. 60 (9) :43-46.

Kargbo, F.R., Xing, J., and Zhang, Y. 2009. Pretreatment for energy use of rice straw: a review. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4: 30-40. DOI:10.5897/AJAR

Karimi, K., Kheradmandinia, S., and Taherzadeh, M. J. 2006. Conversion of rice straw to sugar by diluteacid hydrolysis. Biomass Bioenergy, 30: 247 -253. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.11.015

Kaur, K. and Phutela, U.G. 2014. Improving Paddy Straw Digestibility And Biogas Production Through Different Chemical-Microwave Pretreatments. Agric. Sci. Digest., 34 (1) : 8 – 14. DOI- 10.5958/j.0976-0547.34.1.002

Kausar, H., Sariah, M., Ismail, M.R., Saud, H.M., Habib, S.H., and Berahim, Z. 2012. Development of a potential lignocellulolytic resource for rapid bioconversion of rice straw. Afr J Biotechnol, 11: 9235–9242. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.212

Khatiwada, P., Ahmed, J., Sohag, M. H., Islam, K., and Azad, A. K. 2016. Isolation, Screening and Characterization of Cellulase Producing Bacterial Isolates from Municipal Solid Wastes and Rice Straw Wastes. J Bioprocess Biotech, 6 (4) : 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9821.1000280

Khorsand, H., Kiayee, N., and Masoomparast, A.H. 2012. Rice Straw Ash- A Novel Source of Silica Nanoparticles. Journal of Mechanical Research and Application. 4(3): 1-9. ISSN: 2251-7383, eISSN: 2251-7391

Komisarczuk, S., and Durand. M. 1991. Eff ect of Mineral on Microbial Metabolism. In: J.P. Jouany (Ed). Rumen Microbial Metabolism and Ruminant Digestion. INRA Publ., Versailes.

Lakshmikant. 1990. Cellulose Degradation and Cellulose Activity of Five Cellulolytic Fungi. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 6(1): 64-66. DOI: 10.1007/BF01225357

Lamid, M, Puspaningsih, N. N. T. And Sarwoko, M. 2013. Addition of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes Into Rice Straw Improves In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Products. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 3(9)166-171. ISSN: 2090-4274.

Li, H. Y., Xu, L., Liu, W. J., Fang, M. Q., and Wang, N. 2014. Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Whole Corn Stover and Its Morphological Fractions. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27:194-200. DOI:Â https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13446

Li, J., Shen, Y., and Cai, Y. 2010. Improvement of Fermentation Quality of Rice Straw Silage by Application of a Bacterial Inoculant and Glucose. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23(7):901-906. Â DOI :Â 10.5713/ajas.2010.90403

Little, D. A., 1986. The mineral content of ruminant feed and the potential for mineral supplementation in South East Asia with particular reference to Indonesia. In. R. M. Dixon Ed. IDP, Canberra.

Liu, J.X., and Orskov, E.R. 2000. Cellulase treatment of untreated and steam pre-treated rice straw-effect on in vitro fermentation characteristics. Animal Feed Science and Technology 88: 189-200. DOI:Â http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00218-2

Mahmood, K., Wei-jun, Y., Nazir, K., Iqbal, R.Z., and Abdullah, A.G. 2006. Study of Cellulolytic soil Fungi and Two Nova Spesies and New Medium. Journal of Zheijiang University, 7(6): 459-466. doi:Â Â 10.1631/jzus.2006.B0459

Malik, K., Tokkas, J., Anand, R. C., and Kumar. N. 2015. Pretreated rice straw as an improved fodder for ruminants-An overview. J. Appl. & Nat. Sci. 7 (1) : 514 – 520.

Manurung T., dan Zulbardi M. 1996. Peningkatan Mutu Jerami Padi Dengan Perlakuan Urea Dan Tetes. Jurnal llntu Ternak dan Veteriner 2 (1) :33-38.

Marsden, W.L., and Gray, P.P. 1986. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulases in Lignocellulosic. Material. CRC. Critical Rev. in Biotechnol. Vol.3 (3): 235-276. doi.org/10.3109/07388558509150785

Marxen, A., Klotzbücher, T., Jahn, R., Kaise, K., Nguyen, V. S., Schmidt, A.,. Schädler, M., Vetterlein, D. 2016. Interaction between silicon cycling and straw decomposition in a silicon deficient rice production system. Plant Soil 398:153–163 DOI 10.1007/s11104-015-2645-8.

Masama, E., Topps, J.H., And Massdorp. B.V. 1997. Effects of supplementation with foliage from the tree legume Acacia angustissima, Cajanus cajan, Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaene leucocephala on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of sheep given maize stover ad libitum. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tech. 69: 233 – 240. ISSN  0377-8401  CODEN AFSTDHÂ

Mathius, I. W., dan Sinurat. A. P. 2001. Pemanfaatan bahan pakan inkonvensional untuk ternak. Wartazoa 11 (2): 20–31.

Mayulu, H., Sunarso, M., Christiyanto, and Ballo, F. 2013. Intake and Digestibility of Cattle’s Ration on Complete Feed Based-On Fermented Ammonization Rice Straw with Different Protein Level. Internat. J. of Sci. and Eng. 4(2):86-91. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.86-91

McDonald, P., Edwards, R.A., and Greenhalg, J.P.D. 2002. Animal Nutrition. sixth Ed. Prentice hall. Gosport. London. Pp : 427-428.

McLennan, S. R., Wright, G. S., and Blight, G. W. 1981. Effects of supplements of urea, molasses and sodium sulfate on the intake and liveweight of steers fed rice straw. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 21(111): 367-370. doi.org/10.1071/EA9810367

Minson, D. J. 1963. The effect of pelleting and wafering on the feeding value of roughage - A review. Journal of the British Grassland Society 18, 39- 44.

Mirni, L., Puspaningsih, N.N.T., Chusniati, S. 2006. Penggunaan bakteri xilanolitik asal rumen sebagai inokulum pada jerami padi sebagai upaya peningkatan mutu pakan ternak ruminansia. Lembaga Penelitian. Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya. p19-25.

Mirni, L., Nugroho, T.P., Chusniati, S., dan Rochiman, K. 2011. Eksplorasi Bakteri Selulolitik Asal Cairan Rumen Sapi Potong sebagai Bahan Inokulum Limbah Pertanian. Jurnal Ilmiah Kedokteran Hewan, 4(1):37-42.

Modak, S. K. 1985. Chemical composition and dry matter and organic matter degradability of different varieties of rice straw by nylon bag technique. M. S. Thesis. Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Muhakka, Riswandi, dan Irawan, A. 2014. Pengaruh Pemberian Pupuk Cair terhadap Kandungan NDF, ADF, Kalium, dan Magnesium pada Rumput Gajah Taiwan. Jurnal Peternakan Sriwijaya. 3, (1): 47-54.

Mulijanti, S.L., Tedy, S., dan Nurnayetti. 2014. Pemanfaatan Dedak Padi dan Jerami Fermentasi pada Usaha Penggemukan Sapi Potong di Jawa Barat. Jurnal Peternakan Indonesia. 16 (3): 179-187

Mustabi, J., Ngitung, R., Islamiyati, R., Akhirany, N., Natsir, A., Jusoff, K., Ismartoyo, Kuswinanti, T., and Rinduwati. 2013. Rice Straw Fermented with White Rot Fungi as an Alternative to Elephant Grass in Goat Feeds. Global Veterinaria 10 (6): 697-701. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gv.2013.10.6.1136

Nasrullah, Niimi, M., Akashi, R., and Kawamura. O. 2003. Nuritive Evalution of Forage Plants Grown in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 2003. 16 (5) : 693-701. DOI:Â https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.693Â

NRC, 1980. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC., USA.

Odedire, J. A., and Babayemi, O. J. 2008. Comparative studies on the yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum and Andropogon gayanus as influenced by Tephrosia candida and Leucaena leucocephala Livestock Research for Rural Development 20 (2). http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd20/2/oded20027.htm.

Paath, R. H., Kaligis, D. A., dan Kaunang, C. L. 2012. Produksi Dan Kualitas Jerami Jagung Sebagai Pakan Ternak Sapi Di Kabupaten Minahasa Selatan. Eugenia, 18 (1): 29-34.

Peripolli, V., Barcellos, J.O.J., Prates, E.R., McManus, C., da Silva, L.P., Stella, L.A., Costa Jr, J.B.G., and Lopes, R.B. 2016. Nutritional value of baled rice straw for ruminant feed. R. Bras. Zootec., 45(7) :392-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902016000700006Â

Phutela, U. G., Sahni, N., and Sooch, S. S. 2011. Fungal degradation of paddy straw for enhancing biogas production. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 4 (6): 660-665. ISSN: 0974- 6846

Polyorach, S., and Wanapat, M. 2015. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 99: 449–456. DOI: 10.1111/jpn.12253

Premaratne, S., and Perera, H.G.D. 1999. Evaluation of Provenance In Condensed Tannin Content of Fresh Leaves of Calliandra calothyrsus. Asian-AusJ. Anim. Sci. 12 (6): 891-894. DOI:Â https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1999.891

Preston, T.R., and Leng, R.A. 1987. Matching ruminant production systems with available resources in the tropics and sub-tropics. Penambul Books: Armidale, Australia.

Prihartini, I., Soebarinoto, S., Chuzaemi dan Winugroho. M. 2011. Karakteristik  Nutrisi dan Degradasi Jerami Padi Fermentasi oleh Inokulum Lignolitik TLiD dan  BopR. Animal Production. 11 (1): 1â€7.

Rahalus, R., Tulung, B., Maaruf, K., and Wolayan. F. R. 2014. Pengaruh Penggunaan Konsentrat Dalam Pakan Rumput Benggala ( Panicum Maximum ) Terhadap Kecernaan Ndf Dan Adf Pada Kambing Lokal. Jurnal Zootek 34 (1):75-82.

Rahnama, N., Mamat, S., Shah, U.K.M., Ling, F.H., Abdul Rahman, N.A., and Ariff, A.B. 2013. Effect of Alkali Pretreatment of Rice Straw on Cellulase and Xylanase Production by local Trichoderma harzianum SNRS3under Solid State Fermentation. Bioresources 8 (2): 2881-2896. ISSN: 1930-2126.

Reddy, N., and Yang Y.2006. Properties of High-Quality Long Natural Cellulose Fibers from Rice Straw. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (21): 8077–8081DOI: 10.1021/jf0617723

Relling, E.A., van Niekerk, W.A., Coertze, R.J., and. Rethman, N.F.G. 2001. An evaluation of Panicum maximum cv. Gatton: 2. The influence of stage of maturity on diet selection, intake and rumen fermentation in sheep. South African Journal of Animal Science, 31(2): 85-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v31i2.3833

Rodrigues, M.A.M., Pinto, P., Bezerra, R.M.F., Dias, A.A., Guedes, C.V.M., Gardoso, V.M.G.W., Colaco, L.M.M. J., and Sequeira, C.A. 2008. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw. Animal Feed Science and Technology 141(3-4): 326-338. DOI:Â http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.06.015

Rusdi, R. Arief, dan Agus.2007. Pengaruh Pengeringan Daun Turi (Sesbania Grandiflora) Terhadap Degradasi Bahan Kering Dan Protein Dalam Rumen. Majalah Ilmiah peternakan. 10 (2):1-8.

Sajimin, Y. C., Rahardjo, dan Purwantari, N. D. 2004. Evaluasi produksi tanaman pakan ternak P. maximum cv Riversdale dengan penggunaan manure kelinci. Seminar Nasional Klinik Teknologi pertanian sebagai basis pertumbuhan usaha agribisnis menuju petani nelayan mandiri. BPTP Sulut di Menado.

Santos, M. B., Nader, G. A., Robinson, P. H., Kiran, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Gomes, M. J. 2010. Impact of simulated field drying on in vitro gas production and voluntary dry matter intake of rice straw. Anim Feed Sci Technol 159 (3-4): 96-104. DOI:Â http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.05.012

Saratale, G.D., Chen, S.D., Lo, Y.C., Saratale, R.G., and Chang, J.S. 2008. Outlook of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock using dark fermentation-a review. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 67: 962-979.

Sarnklong, C., Cone, J. W., Pellikaan, W., and Hendriks. W. H. 2010. Utilization of Rice Straw and Different Treatments to Improve Its Feed Value for Ruminants: A Review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23 (5) : 680 – 692. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.80619

Sarwar, M., Khan, M.A., and Nisa, M. 2004. Effect of organic acids of fermentable carbohydrates on digestibility and nitrogen utilization of urea treated wheat straw in buffalo bulls. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 55: 223â€228.

Schiere, J.B., and Ibrahim, M.N.M. 1989. Feeding of urea ammonia treated rice straw: A compilation of miscellaneous reports produced by the straw utilization project, Pudoc, Wageningen, Sri Lanka.

Seglar, B. 2003. “Fermentation analysis and silage quality testing,†in Proceedings of the Minnesota Dairy Health Conference. :119–136, University of Minnesota.

Selçuk, Z., Çetinkaya, N. Salman, M., and Genç, B. 2016. The determination of in vitro gas production and metabolizable energy value of rice straw treated with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 40: 707-713. doi:10.3906/vet-1601-113.

Selim, A.S.M., Pan, J., Takano, T., Suzuki, T., Koike, S., Kobayashi, Y. and Tanaka, K. 2004. Effect of ammonia treatment on physical strength of rice straw, distribution of straw particles and particle-associated bacteria in sheep rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology 115: 117-128. DOI:Â http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.01.011

Shen, H. S., Ni, D. B., and Sundstøl, F. 1998. Studies on untreated and urea-treated rice straw from three cultivation seasons: 1. Physical and chemical measurements in straw and straw fractions. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 73 (3-4):243-261. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00157-6

Soenarjo, E., Damardjati, D.S., dan Syam. M. 1991. Padi Buku 3 . Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan. Bogor

Soepranianondo, K., Nazar, D. S., dan Handiyatno, D. 2007. Potensi Jerami Padi yang Diamoniasi dan Difermentasi Menggunakan Bakteri Selulolitik terhadap Konsumsi Bahan Kering, Kenaikan Berat Badan dan Konversi Pakan Domba. Media Kedokteran Hewan. 23 (3) :202-205.

Stanbury, P.F., and Whitaker, A. 1984. Principle of Fermentation Technology. Pergamon Press Ltd, England.

Sudana. 1984. “Straw Basal Diet for Growing Lambs†(A Thesis Submitted to the Degree of Master of Science). The Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, the University of New England, Armidale, N. S. W., 23451, Australia.

Sudirman, dan Imran. 2007. Kerbau Sumbawa: sebagai konverter sejati pakan berserat. Lokakarya Nasional Usaha Ternak Kerbau Mendukung Program Kecukupan Daging Sapi. Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat.

Sudirman, Suhubdy, S. D., Hasan, S. H., Dilaga, dan Karda, I. W. 2015. Kandungan Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) dan Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) Bahan Pakan Lokal Ternak Sapi yang Dipelihara pada Kandang Kelompok . Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Indonesia 1 (1) : 66-70

Syamsu, J.A., Natsir, A., Siswadi., Abustam, E., Hikmah, Nurlaelah, Muliwarni, Setiawan, A.H., dan Arasy, A.M. 2006. Limbah Tanaman Pangan sebagai Sumber Pakan Ruminansia: Potensi dan Daya Dukung di Sulawesi Selatan. Makassar: Yayasan Citra Emulsi dan Dinas Peternakan Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan.

Tanuwiria, U. H., Ayuningsih, B., dan Mansyur. 2005. Fermentabilitas Dan Kecernaan Ransum Lengkap Sapi Perah Berbasis Jerami Padi Dan Pucuk Tebu Teramoniasi (In Vitro) Jurnal Ilmu Ternak, 5 (2): 64 – 69.

Tillman, D.A., Hartadi, H., Reksohadiprodjo, S., Lebdosoekojo, S.1998. Ilmu Makanan Ternak Dasar. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.

Trisnadewi, A. A. A. S., Sumardani, N. L. G., Tanama Putri, B. R. I, Cakra, G. L. O., dan Aryani. I G. A. I. 2011. Peningkatan Kualitas Jerami Padi Melalui Penerapan Teknologi Amoniasi Urea Sebagai Pakan Sapi Berkualitas Di Desa Bebalang Kabupaten Bangli. Udayana Mengabdi 10 (2): 72 – 74 ISSN : 1412-0925.Â

Ukanwoko, A.I. and Igwe, N.C. 2012. Proximate Composition of Some Grass and Legume Silages Prepared in a Humid Tropical Environment. Int. Res. J. Agric. Sci. Soil Sci. 2(2) : 068-071. (ISSN: 2251-0044)

Vadiveloo, J. 2003. The effect of agronomic improvement and urea treatment on the nutritional value of Malaysian rice straw varieties. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 108 (1-4):33-146. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00170-6

Van Soest, P. 2006. Rice Straw, the Role of Silica and Treatments to Improve Quality. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 130 (1-4):137–171. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.01.023

Van Soest, P. J. 1982. Nutritional Ecology of The Ruminant Metabolism Chemistry and Forage and Plant Fiber. Cornell University. Oregon. USA.

Van Soest, P.J . 1983. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. O&B Books, Inc . Corvalis, Oregon

Vanholme, R., Demedts, B., Morreel, K., Ralph, J., and Boerjan, W. 2010. Lignin Biosynthesis and Structure. Plant Physiology. 153 (3):895-905. doi: http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/​10.​1104/​pp.​110.​155119

Vijchulata, P., and Sanpote, S. 1982. Changes in the nutritive value of rice straw after growth of Volvariella volvacea fungus. In "The Utilization of Fibrous Agricultural Residues as Animal Feeds". :113-118, ed. P. T. Doyle. (School of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria).

Wanapat, M., Kang, S., Hankla, N., and Phesatcha, K. 2013. Effect of rice straw treatment on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 8(17):1677-1687. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2013.6732

Wati, N. E., Achmadi, J., dan Pangestu, E. 2012. Degradasi Nutrien Bahan Pakan Limbah Pertanian Dalam Rumen Kambing Secara In Sacco (In Sacco Ruminal Degradation of Nutrients of Agricultural By-products in the Goat). Animal Agriculture Journal, 1. (1): 485 – 498.

White, T.W. And F.G. Hembry. 1985. Rice by-products in ruminant rations. La. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 771: 18.

Winugroho, M. 1999. Nutritive Values of Feed Ingredient in Tropics-Review. Asian-AusJ. Anim. Sci. 12 (3): 493-502. doi:Â https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1999.493

Wongsrikeao, W., And Wanapat, M. 1985. The effects of urea treatment of rite straw on the feed intake and liveweight gain of buffaloes. In "The Utilization of Fibrous Agricultural Residues as Animal Feeds", pp. 81-84, ed., P. T. Doyle. Canberra.

Xiong, X. Q., Liao, H. D., Ma, J. S., Liu,X. M., Zhang, L. Y., Shi, X. W., Yang, X. L., Lu, X. N., and Zhu, Y. H. 2013. Isolation of a rice endophytic bacterium, Pantoea sp. Sd-1, with ligninolytic activity and characterization of its rice straw degradation ability. Letters in Applied Microbiology 58 (2): 123-129. doi:10.1111/lam.12163.

Yang, J.S., Yuan, H.L., Wang, H.X., and Chen, W.X. 2005. Purification and characterization of lignin peroxidases from Penicillium decumbens P6. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 21 (4) :435-440. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-004-1876-2

Yanuarianto, O., M. Amin, M. Iqbal, S. D. Hasan. 2015. Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik Jerami Padi yang Difermentasi dengan Kombinasi Kapur Tohor, Bacillus s., dan Air Kelapa pada Waktu yang Berbeda. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan Indonesia. 1 (1) : 47-52.

Yanuartono, Indarjulianto,S., Purnamaningsih, H., and Raharjo,S. 2016. Evaluasi Klinis dan Laboratoris pada Kejadian Sapi Ambruk Tahun III. Laporan Penelitian. Penelitian Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi (PUPT), Kementrian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi.

Yuan, X.J., Dong, Z.H., Desta, S.T., Wen, A.Y., Zhu, X., Rong, T., Shao, T. 2016. Adding distiller’s grains and molasses on fermentation quality of rice straw silages. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, 46 (12): 2235-2240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20150851

Yulianti, A. 2010. Kinetika Volatile Fatty Acid (Vfa) Cairan Rumen Dan Estimasi Sintesis Protein Mikrobia Pada Sapi Perah Dara Peranakan Friesian Holstein Yang Diberi Pakan Basal Rumput Raja, Jerami Jagung, Dan Jerami Padi Yang Disuplementasi Konsentrat Protein Tinggi. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian 6(1) :25-33.

Zakaria, Y., Novita, C. I., dan Samadi. 2013. Efectivitas Fermentasi dengan Sumber Substrat yang Berbeda Terhadap Kualitas Jerami Padi. Agripet 13 (1):22-25.

Zeng, G. M., Yu, H.Y., Huang, H.L., Huang, D.L., Chen, Y.N., Huang, G.H., and Li, J.B.2006. Laccase activities of a soil fungus Penicillium simplicissimum in relation to lignin degradation. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 22 (4): 317–324. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-005-9025-0

Zhao, H, Yu, H., Yuan, X., Piao, R., Li, H., Wang, X., and Cui, Z. 2014. Degradation of Lignocelluloses in Rice Straw by BMC-9, a Composite Microbial System. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 24 (5): 585–591. 10.4014/jmb.1310.10089

Zhaoa , X. G., M. Wanga , Z. L. Tan, S. X. Tang, Z. H. Sun, C. S. Zhou and X. F. Han.2009. Effects of Rice Straw Particle Size on Chewing Activity, Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Digestion in Goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22(9):1256-1266. doi:Â https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80672

Zulbardi, M., Siregar, A.R., dan Mathius, I.W. 1983. Jerami padi dengan jagung dan dedak padi sebagai makanan kerbau. Pros. Pertemuan Ilmiah Ruminansia Besar. Cisarua, 6 – 9 September 1982. Puslitbang Peternakan, Bogor. 33 – 36.




How to Cite

yanuartono, yanuartono .-., Purnamaningsih, H., Indarjulianto, S., & Nururrozi, A. (2017). Potensi jerami sebagai pakan ternak ruminansia. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan (Indonesian Journal of Animal Science), 27(1), 40–62. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jiip.2017.027.01.05